WORLD WAR II MINI-UNIT
Dictatorship versus Democracy
Decision Tree and Letter to Character
Book Title: Twenty and Ten
Author: Claire Huchet Bishop
Publisher and date: The Trumpet Club, 1952: renewed 1980
Curriculum Developer: Kristi Le Kirby
Summary: Twenty and Ten is based on a true story that
occurred during World War II. This story takes place at a refuge in
France. At the time, Germany had taken over France and were
destroying the Jews. In order to save the lives of ten Jewish
children, Sister Gabriel and her twenty students put their own lives
at stake. When the Jewish children came, the twenty students promised
that they would never betray the children, "no matter what the Nazis
The ten and twenty students soon become fast friends. However, it wasn't until the Nazis came that their friendship was truly tested. By accident, the children had found a hidden cave behind a large boulder next to the school. The ten Jewish children were forced to hide in the cave as the Nazis searched the refuge. Sister Gabriel was captured by the Nazis, so the students were left by themselves to conceal the children. Eventually the Nazis were convinced that the refuge was not hiding the Jewish children. The ten children's lives were saved.
Social Studies Relevance: This book deals a great deal with the history of World War II and the Holocaust. It looks deeply into the loyalty of friends. It deals with the decision making of the students who concealed the Jewish children, as well as the Jewish children themselves. This book can also be used to teach about geography (European) and political science (how dictatorships are different from democracies).
Grade Level Focus: 5th grade
Relationship to Social Studies State Core:
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Title of Lesson: Judaism
*Given the K-W-L chart, students will be able to ask appropriate questions to a guest speaker and fill in the chart according to the answers.
*Given what they have learned from the guest speaker, students will be able to write in a response journal their feelings on the persecution of the Jews.
*large sheet of butcher paper
*individual response journals
1. K-W-L. On a large sheet of butcher paper, write "Judaism" with three wide columns underneath. Label the columns "know", "want to know", and "learned." As a class, brainstorm everything known about Judaism and list what they come up with under the "know" column. Then list questions about things the class wants to know under the "want to know" column.
2. Remind the students of appropriate conduct when a visitor is speaking.
3. Guest Speaker. Invite a guest speaker that is a Jew or is familiar with the Jewish religion to the classroom. Have the speaker touch on points dealing with the religion and nationality of Judaism and how it relates into World War II.
4. After the guest speaker has left, fill in the "learned" portion of the K-W-L chart as a class.
5. Response journal. Have students individually write in a response journal their feelings on the persecution of the Jews during World War II.
*I will evaluate the K-W-L chart to see if the listed questions were asked and then filled into the appropriate columns.
*I will read each individual's response journal to ensure they have written something related to the discussion of the guest speaker.
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*Given the first three chapters of the book, Twenty and Ten, and supplementary materials on types of government, students will be able to discuss government in the U.S. and compare it to the dictatorship in Germany during World War II.
*Students will be able to construct a Venn diagram including the differences and similarities of democracies and dictatorships.
*Students will complete a data retrieval chart on dictatorships and democracies.
*supplementary information on types of governments (see Appendix)
*enough copies of Ten and Twenty, by Claire Huchet Bishop, for each student
*blank data retrieval charts on dictatorships and democracies
1. (Anticipatory Set): Randomly call on students to share their predictions of what will happen in the first two chapters of Twenty and Ten.
2. Ask students to raise their hand when they want to read. Begin reading chapters 1-2 to the class. Call on volunteers to read.
3. Guided reading. Have students predict what the "gold" was that Arthur gave to Henry. Continue reading to find out. Have the students guess who was following Janet and Henry while they were at the creek. Students should predict what happens in chapter three using the title, "The Cave," as a clue. Read the chapter.
4. Guided discussion. Ask students why they think chocolate was such a treasure to the children in the story. What made it hard for children to get chocolate? Does this have anything to do with the ration cards the children were forced to use to gage how much they could eat? Explain that ration cards were used for the purpose of giving out food and clothing to people during the war because of the scarcity. Hitler kept food for himself and left only a small amount for people who were opposed to him. Explain who Hitler was and that he was a dictator of Germany. His future goal, with the help of the Nazis, was to overtake the world and have a "perfect race." One of the steps in accomplishing this was to exterminate certain groups of people like the handicapped, blacks, and Jews.
5. Pass out the supplementary materials on types of governments. Review the materials as a class.
6. Data Retrieval Chart. Give each student a data retrieval chart. From the materials and chapters they have read, students should complete the chart briefly describing the characteristics of each type of government. To make the chart, two columns should be labeled "dictatorship," "monarchy," and "democracy." Rows going down vertically should be: "ruled by," "leader gains power by," "leader shares power with," "laws are made by," and "extent of individual freedom."
7. Venn diagram. Draw two large circles on the board with a small overlap. The circles should be labeled "Dictatorship" and "Democracy". After most of the students have completed their charts, ask them to share what they have found. As students offer their comments, write down key words in the Venn diagram on the board. For each comment, students should think of the corresponding aspect for the other government. If these are opposites, they should go in opposite circles. If they are similar, they should go in the overlap. There should be very few similarities between the two governments.
8. Review the lesson, commenting on the differences between our government (democracy) and the government in the book (dictatorship).
Evaluation: I will observe students' contributions to the discussion and Venn diagram. Anecdotal notes will be taken on any student unable to add to the discussion. I will examine the data retrieval charts to see if students understood the aspects of a dictatorship versus a democracy.
***This lesson can be broken into two lessons***
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Title of Lesson: Twenty and Ten story-map
*Given the readings from Twenty and Ten, students will be able to draw a map of the setting of the story.
*Students will list two statements describing how the setting arrangement in the book affected the plot of the story.
*blank drawing paper
*enough Twenty and Ten books for each student
1. Finish reading the book, Twenty and Ten.
2. Ask the students how the arrangement of buildings, fields, roads, etc., affect the route they go to school. Discuss how their route may be different if the setting was changed. They may go to school a different way. They may take a bus rather than walk. Explain that setting greatly affects how things turn out.
3. Ask students to think of a secret hiding place or a place where they like to go to be alone. Each student should picture that place in his/her minds. Explain that the setting of the hiding place greatly affects how effective the hiding place is. For example, if a hiding place is surrounded by trees, it would be a better place than one out in the open. Ask volunteers to explain how their hiding place would be changed if the setting were to change.
4. After students have discussed the importance of setting, have them think of the setting in the story. Ask them if anything about the setting was critical for the safety of the ten Jewish children. How did the placement of the cave save the children from being caught by the Nazis? How did the placement of the out-house keep the Nazis from suspecting Janet's venture to the cave? What other important pieces from the setting affected the story plot? How?
5. Story Map. Hand each student a blank piece of paper. Instruct them to map out the setting of the story, including the schoolhouse, cave, road to the city, the city, playground, out-house, etc. Students should look back through the book to find more important facts to help them with their map. Maps should take a birds-eye view.
6. After student's have completed their maps, instruct them to turn the maps over and write two statements describing how the setting in the book affected the safety of the ten Jewish children.
7. Gather and display the maps. Discuss any differences. Look in the book and find any clues that might clear up any differences. Review the plot of the story and how the setting affected it. While doing this, read some statements on the back of the student's maps.
*Observations of the discussions and examinations of the story-maps will show me if the students have met the objectives.
*I will also read the two statements describing how the setting affected the story plot to see if the students have understood the importance of the setting.
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Title of Lesson: Decision Tree and Letter to Character
*After students have related the readers' theatre to the class, students will complete a decision tree worksheet.
*Given the feelings they had while creating the decision tree, students will express their appreciation, in the form of a letter, to one of the characters in Twenty and Ten for the courage they displayed during the Holocaust.
*readers' theatre script for each performer
*enough envelopes and lined paper for each student
*popsicle sticks with each student's name.
1. Have the principal come in and tell the teacher to please leave the room because he/she has a secret to tell the class. The principal tells the class a secret about the teacher when she leaves (the teacher actually knows what the secret is). Examples of secrets could be a surprise party for the teacher, an April fools joke, a special award, etc. When the teacher comes back in, she should try to bribe the class with treats to tell her what the secret was.
2. After a few minutes of bribing, tell the class that they will read about some students that resisted bribery from a Nazi to save the lives of ten Jewish children. State the objective. As the readers' theatre is being read, students should put themselves into the place of the students in the story and think of what they would do if they were in that situation.
3. Volunteers to read the readers' theatre should put a popsicle stick with their name on it and put it in a container. Draw out names randomly and assign parts to the corresponding person.
4. Students should come to the front of the class and read the
script until the part where the Nazi was bribing the children to tell
where the Jewish children were hidden. Readers should go back to
their desks for the next activity.
5. Discuss how the characters in the script have to make a decision that depends on their lives and/or the lives of ten Jewish children.
6. As a class, compare the differences between the bribery the teacher did at the beginning of the lesson and the bribery of the Nazi in the script. For example, the children in the script hadn't seen chocolate or candy for a very long time, so the temptation was very strong. The students see it almost every day, so the temptation may not have been so tempting. As students offer their comments, write them on the board under two separate columns: 1. Nazi bribing children. 2. Teacher bribing you.
7. Hand out the decision tree worksheet. On the board, draw a large square with four equal boxes inside. The top two boxes should be labeled "good consequences." The bottom two should be labeled "bad consequences." In the first column, above the boxes, should be labeled "tell" and the left column should be labeled "not tell". As students offer their comments on the possible consequences of the character's choices, write them in the appropriate boxes. Generate ideas that might happen to the children if they were to tell or if they didn't tell where the Jewish children were hiding.
8. Script readers should come to the front of the class and finish reading the script to find out what decision the children made.
9. Taking the point of view of a hidden Jewish child, have
students write a letter of appreciation to a character in the script,
expressing their thanks for the sacrifice and courage that was
expressed in their behalf.
Remind the students of the difficult decision the characters were faced with. Instruct them to use their decision tree as a guide.
10. Instruct the students that did not participate in the readers
theatre to put a popsicle stick with their names into a container.
Drawing from the popsicle stick pool, randomly select students to
read their letters to the class. Review the decision making process
(thinking of good and bad consequences for each decision). Optional:
Pass out and eat the treats from the beginning of class.
*I will assess individual decision tree worksheets to see if students thought through the decision making process.
*I will read the letters to ensure that students expressed their feelings concerning the sacrifice some individuals made during the Holocaust.
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Types of Governments
AUTOCRACY-Governments ruled by one person
A monarchial government is ruled by a king, queen, emperor, empress, or tsar. In an absolute monarchy, the monarch rules completely by themselves. In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch shares power with elected lawmakers. These lawmakers make sure the monarch does not overtake the powers of the government.
A dictatorship is another form of autocracy. It differs from a monarchy in that the ruler gains his power through force. Dictators hold complete control of the government, sharing no powers with anyone else. Sometimes, a dictator controls all aspects of a person's life, including social and economical.
DEMOCRACY-Governments ruled by many people
Democratic governments are ruled by the people they represent. The goal of a democratic government is to reflect the will of the people. Two types of democracy are listed below.
1. Athenian Model of Direct Democracy:
This democracy exists when the will of the people is directly put into public law. This exits only in small communities in which citizens can meet in a chosen place and decide together the laws they want to live by.
2. Representative Democracy:
This democracy uses elected people to represent the will of the people. The representatives are elected by the people and can be voted out of office if the people do not want that person in office any more.
A democracy makes sure that:
1. All citizens have equal opportunities to express their beliefs through voting.
2. All people have individual freedom .
3. All people have equal opportunities.
4. There are people who rule the government, but all people have rights.
5. The people agree to be governed by the leaders.
This information has been adapted from West's American Government, West Publishing Company/9915-6/MRJ/2-92:1992
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