Native Americans

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    A Thematic Integrated Unit for 2nd Grade focusing on the Navajo, Sioux, and Iroquois Indians

     

    This unit was created by Kristen Adamson

    As part of the requirements for El Ed 4050 Fall Semester 1999

    Jay Monson, course instructor, USU

    Contents

     Goals and Objectives

     Introductory Activity

     Developmental Activity

     Culminating Activity

      Additional Activities

     Resources

     

    Goals and Objectives

  • Goals:

    1. Students will understand the importance of understanding other cultures and peoples.
    2. Students will respect the beliefs and lifestyles of the Native Americans.
    3. Students will be able to work in cooperative groups to complete some projects.
    4. Students will contribute to class discussions and be attentive during lecture times.
    5. Students will learn some new skills like weaving and writing poetry.

     

    Objectives:

    1. Students will be able to participate in many learning activities concerning Native Americans.
    2. Students will learn how to express what they know, what they want to know and what they have learned through a KWL activity.
    3. Students will demonstrate an understanding of maps by successfully completing an activity using one.
    4. Students will understand the method used by the Navajo to weave.
    5. Students will recognize patterns in Native American weaving and create a pattern for their own weaving.
    6. Students will understand the relationship of the Indians with the Earth and recognize the importance of respecting the Earth.
    7. Students will demonstrate an understanding of the use of pictographs as a language by writing a story using them.
    8. Students will write a poem from a Native American viewpoint.
    9. The students will understand how the Indians expressed their gratitude and will participate in an activity to help them express their own gratitude.
    10. Students will work in cooperative groups to complete a diorama depicting the life of one Native American tribe.
    11. Students will present their diorama to the group and be able to answer questions concerning it.
    12. Students will understand the food preparation techniques used by the Native Americans.
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    Introductory Activity

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    Objectives:

    1. Students will identify what they already know and what they want to know about Native Americans.
    2. Students will understand basic facts that discern the Sioux, Navajo, and Iroquois tribes.
    3. Students will demonstrate an understanding of maps by using a map of the United States to show where the three tribes were located.

     

    Materials:

    • KWL chart
    • Blank maps of the United States (one per student)
    • Transparency copy of the same map
    • Pictures of Indians from each of the three tribes
    • Crayons and pencils

     

    Procedure:

    1. Put up the KWL chart. Ask students to raise their hands and share what they already know about Native Americans. Fill in their answers on the chart, and discuss.
    2. Introduce the three tribes to be covered in this unit. Show the students pictures and briefly explain that every tribe is different in the way they dressed, lived, found food, etc.
    3. Ask students what things they would like to know about Native Americans. Explain that you will try to answer their questions as you go along.
    4. Look at the classroom map of the United States. Ask the students to identify which direction is North. If they are correct, have them explain how they know. Explain the importance of having a compass on a map.
    5. Follow the same procedure for identifying and explaining the use of boundary lines and keys.
    6. Hand out blank maps of the United States. Have the students draw on the compass and distinguish each of the cardinal directions. Explain that the students will be plotting where each of the tribes was historically located.
    7. Put up the transparency. Draw the boundary lines for the tribes, each in a different color. Have students do the same with their maps. Walk around the room and check for student understanding.
    8. Ask students to create a key for their map that would be clear to someone who didn't know what the map was for. Have students share their keys and how they came up with them. Collect maps for evaluation, then return them to the students for future reference.

     

    Evaluation:

    1. Notice the participation in the KWL activity. Ask for input from students who aren't participating as much
    2. Collect maps and check to see if students followed directions and included all required elements.
    3. Note the techniques used by students in the creation of their map keys.

       Additional Activities

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    Developmental Activities

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    Navajo

     

    Objectives:

    1. The students will be able to understand the process of weaving used by the Navajo Indians.
    2. Students will be able to recognize patterns in pictures of rugs made by different tribes.
    3. Students will demonstrate an understanding of basic weaving techniques by making a wristband using a straw weaving technique.

     

    Materials:

    • Navajo rug
    • Model of Navajo loom
    • Pictures of weaving done by different tribes
    • Weaving Materials: 3 plastic straws per student, several colors of yarn, masking tape
    • Wristband example

     

    Procedure:

    1. Show students the Navajo rug and the model of the Navajo loom. Ask them if they know what they are and what the Navajos used them for.
    2. Guide the discussion to the process used by Navajos to weave. For example: Ask students to brainstorm about where the Navajo got their yarn and how they colored it.
    3. Show students the pictures of different Native American rugs. Ask students to describe what they see. Point out the patterns if they don't notice them on their own. Talk about the reason students think Native Americans used patterns.
    4. Ask students if they would like to learn to weave. Show the example wristband and tell them that is what they will be weaving.
    5. Pass out the weaving kits. Go through the step-by-step process of setting up the straws an beginning to weave. (See Resources).
    6. Walk around and help students as needed. Instruct students how to add new colors when they are ready to do so.
    7. Help students finish off wristband when ready. Tie them on their wrists.

     

    Conclusion:

  • Remind students one more time that there are many ways to weave and they just learned one of them. Review the importance of weaving in Navajo life.
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    Evaluation:

    1. Have students write in their journals about how a Navajo would prepare to weave. This would prove their understanding of the process.
    2. Look at the wristbands the students made. It will be obvious if they followed directions and used the correct procedure.
    3. Prepare a pattern recognition game for students to play. It could be an adaptation of Memory.

     

     

    Sioux

     

    Objectives:

    1. The students will understand the importance of the buffalo to the Sioux Indians. The will also undertand how the Sioux used every part of the buffalo
    2. The students will understand that some Native Americans used pictographs as their form of written language.
    3. The students will demonstrate and understanding for one use of the buffalo and pictographs by creating a buffalo robe story.

     

    Materials: 

    • Children of the Wind and Water Book
    • Buffalo hide
    • Buffalo robe story example
    • Brown butcher paper
    • Pictograph examples
    • Black Crayons

     

    Procedure:

    1. Read the book, Children of the Wind and Water. Ask students to come up with ideas on why the Sioux hunted the buffalo. Answers should include food, clothing, shelter, etc.
    2. Show students the buffalo hide. Have them brainstorm ways that the Sioux might have used it. Do the same for the horns, bones, meat, etc.
    3. Explain the usefulness of keeping records on buffalo hide. Ask students how they think the Sioux kept records. Guide the discussion to pictographs.
    4. Compare the use of pictographs to the use of the English language. Explain how pictographs didn't include symbols for words like 'the' or 'and.'
    5. Hand out the butcher paper and pictograph examples. Instruct students to make up a story using the pictographs. Show your example of the robe story. Have students rip a buffalo hide shape out of the butcher paper before beginning their story. Walk around and give assistance as needed.
    6. When students have finished their stories, have them crinkle the paper up to make it look more leathery.

     

    Conclusion: Have some students share their stories and describe their hides. Collect everyone's stories when they have finished and display them.

     

    Evaluation:

    1. Notice the students who are attentive and participating in the class discussion. Involved those who are not.
    2. Look at each students' robe story to see if they completed the activity and followed directions.

     

    Iroquois

     

    Objectives:

    1. The students will understand how the Iroquois have thanks for the things they were grateful for.
    2. The students will be able to think of what they are grateful for and make a collage using magazine pictures to represent those things.

     

    Materials:

    • Giving Thanks Book
    • Magazines
    • Scissors
    • Glue
    • Paper (writing and construction)
    • Thanksgiving books

     

    Procedure:

    1. Read the book, Giving Thanks, to the students. Ask students to listen for what they Iroquois were thankful for. Discuss their answers after reading the book. Talk about how it is important to think about blessings and be grateful for them.
    2. Hand out the writing paper and have students think about what they are grateful for. Have them keep a list on the paper. Allow about 5-10 minutes for this part of the activity.
    3. Explain that the students will be making a Thanksgiving collage. They will look through the magazines to find pictures of the things they are grateful for. They will cut out the pictures and glue them onto the construction paper. Instruct them to fill the entire page with pictures.
    4. Allow students to work on their collage for the rest of the time. Walk around and give assistance as needed.
    5. If students finish early, have them look through the Thanksgiving books until everyone is done.
    6. When all students are done, invite a few students to share their collages with the class. Collect all collages at the end and display them along with the lists the students wrote.

     

    Conclusion: End the lesson with a challenge for students to think more about the things they are grateful for. Invite them to go home are share their lists with their families.

     

    Evaluation:

    1. Observe the students who are on task during the work time.
    2. Read over the students' lists and look at their collages to make sure they followed directions and completed the assignment.
  •  Additional Activities

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    Culminating Activity

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    Objectives:

    1. The students will share their knowledge of one of the three tribes by describing their diorama.
    2. The students will learn what members of the three tribes ate and how they made their food.
    3. Students will be able to complete the KWL chart by sharing what they have learned about Native Americans during this unit.

     

    Materials:

    • Student dioramas ready to share
    • Navajo Fry Bread Ingredients and Recipe
    • Iroquois Succotash Ingredients and Recipe
    • Beef Jerky (or any kind of jerky)
    • Cooking Utensils:
    • Hot plate, large pot, wooden spoon, large mixing bowl, deep fryer
    • Paper bowls
    • Plastic forks
    • Napkins

     

    Procedure:

    1. Prepare the ingredients and cooking utensils before the lesson. To be time efficient, have the fry bread dough already prepared.
    2. Have the students push back the desks and sit on the floor. Explain that they are going to celebrate everything they have learned about the Native Americans.
    3. Invite the groups to get their dioramas and share them with the rest of the class. Have students describe what they included in their diorama and why. Make sure each student gets a chance to participate in the presentation. Remind students what proper presentation behavior is.
    4. Have students gather around the table you will be cooking on. Explain that you are going to cook one thing from each tribe for them to sample.
    5. Begin by showing them how to make the Iroquois Succotash. While it is heating, show them the jerky and explain how the Sioux cut and dried the buffalo meat. Let the students sample the jerky. The succotash should be heated at that point. Let the students sample some of that while you show them how to make Navajo Fry Bread. Explain how you made the dough and let it rise. Show how to make small dough balls to fry. While you do the frying, explain how the Navajo did it. Let the students sample the fry bread with some honey.

     

    Conclusion: When the students have finished their food, have them direct their attention to the KWL chart. Briefly talk about the things they wanted to learn. Have the students tell you what they did learn during the unit. Write these things on the chart

     

    Evaluation:

    1. Observe the students as they present their dioramas. Make sure everyone pays attention and is respectful.
    2. Ask questions during the cooking time to assess student understanding of the procedures and ingredients.
    3. Make sure that every student participates in the KWL conclusion. Let every student contribute at least one thing that they learned.

     


    Iroquois Succotash

     

    Ingredients:

    1 large onion diced

    2 Tbsp. Cooking oil or butter

    2 Cups cooked corn

    2 Cups cooked beans (chick peas, kidney, or lima beans)

    2 Cups cooked rice (wild rice, if possible)

    3/4 Cup Oil and Vinegar salad dressing

     

    Cooking Utensils Required:

    • Large pot
    • Wooden spoon

     

    Cooking Procedure:

    1. In a large pot, saute the onion in oil or butter until soft.
    2. Mix corn, beans, and rice with the cooked onion. Heat
    3. Pour the salad dressing over the warm mixture and toss.

    Serve in small bowls.

    Eat and enjoy an Iroquois favorite!

     


    Navajo Fry Bread

     

    Ingredients:

    2 Cups Flour Warm Water

    2 tsp. Baking Powder Shortening

    1/2 tsp. Salt Honey or Powdered Sugar

    1/2 Cup Powdered Milk

     

    Cooking Utensils Required:

    • Frying pan or hot plate or electric frying pan
    • Measuring cups and spoons
    • Tongs
    • Paper towels
    • Large bowl

     

    Cooking Procedure:

    1. Mix together the baking powder, powdered milk, flour, and salt.
    2. Stir in warm water just until dough clings together.
    3. Knead the dough until it is not sticky.
    4. Cover with a cloth and let the dough stand for 2 hours.
    5. Shape into balls about 2 inches across.
    6. Flatten by patting with hands until you have a circle of about 8 inches. Make a small hole in the center.
    7. Fry in about inch of shortening. Bread should be light brown on each side. Use the tongs to turn the bread.
    8. Drain on paper towels. Fry bread can be topped with powdered sugar or honey and eaten as a dessert.

     Additional Activities

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    Additional Activities

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    Introductory Activity Ideas

    • Provide Native American artifacts for students to look at and discuss. Have students make predictions about what part of the country the artifacts came from. The teacher may tell the students where they came from or have the students find out during the unit.
    • Provide many picture books about Native Americans for the students to look at and read. Discuss what they found out from the picture books. Make a KWL chart to find out what students want to learn more about.
    • Have a Native American speaker come in and talk to the class. Ask the speaker to bring in artifacts to show the students. Have the speaker briefly explain the background of his tribe. If he or she is willing, have the speaker conduct a KWL activity with the students.
    • Show a clip from Disneyís Peter Pan or Pocahontas. Have students point out things that they think are and are not accurate. Engage the students in a discussion about what they know and donít know about Native Americans.
    • Read a story about Native Americans to the students. Have them listen for things they didnít already know about Native Americans. Discuss what the students learned. Ask them if there is anything else they want to learn.

     

    Developmental Activity Ideas

     

    Math Activities:

    •  Explain the Native American stick game to the students. Have them create their own set of sticks to play with. Give them the opportunity to play the game and keep track of their score.
    • Talk about the patterns found in many Native American artifacts such as weaving, baskets, jewelry, and clothes. Have students practice creating a pattern for a rug using graph paper or pattern block manipulatives. You could also talk about symmetry and geometric shapes along with this activity.
    • Read the story, Knots on a Counting Rope. Discuss different ways Native Americans kept track of numbers. Provide ropes for students to practice counting with.

     

    Science Activities:

    • Talk about how Native Americans would track animals by looking for their footprints. Show pictures of different animal tracks and have students guess which animal made them. Discuss why it was important for Native Americans to know which animals made which tracks. Have students practice their animal tracking skills by playing an animal track memory game.
    • Read Annie and the Old One. Discuss how the Navajo colored the wool that they used for weaving. Talk about the chemistry involved in dying. Have students participate in a coloring experiment using wool and natural dyes.
    • Read Brother Eagle, Sister Sky. Talk with the students about how the Native Americans respected the Earth and all living things. Discuss how students follow their example and respect the world around them. Get students involved in a recycling or nature preserving project.

     

    Social Studies Activities:

    • Have a Native American speaker come in and do a presentation for the class. The speaker can address the topics of tribal government, history, economy, or sociology. Let the students ask questions concerning any of these topics.
    • Have the students map out a migration pattern for the buffalo on the plains. Have students include the places where the Sioux Indians camped as they followed the herd. This can be a lesson on the symbols used on maps.
    • Read And the Turtle Watched. Talk about the religious beliefs of the Native Americans. Teach the children some ceremonial chants that the Native American used in religious ceremonies.

     

    Writing Activities:

    • Read Native American legends to the class. Talk about legends and their purpose. Have students decide on a topic for a legend and then write a legend using that topic. Let students share their legends with one another.
    • Teach students the correct way to write and address a letter. Have the students write to a reservation and request materials about their tribe.
    • Have students research one Native American tribe and write a report about that tribe. Teach students the correct way to write a paragraph. Make sure they use that format in their reports. Let the students share their reports with each other.

     

    P.E. Activities:

    • Show pictures or a video of Native Americans dancing. Talk about why the students think they danced for ceremonies. Teach the students a traditional dance like the serpentine dance. Beat a drum for the students to dance to. 
    • Have students speculate about the kind of games Native American children played. Explain that many children would have races during their free time. Have students do different kinds of races like a crab race, a wheelbarrow race, or just a running race.
    • Read The Legend of the Bluebonnet. Discuss the reasons why rain was so important to the Native Americans. Have the students "make rain" in the classroom by rubbing their hands, snapping their fingers, slapping their legs, and stamping their feet.

     

    Music Activities:

    • Bring in a Native American drum. Play it for the students and have them look at it. Discuss the way the Native Americans built their drums. Have students create their own drums using empty coffee cans. Teach the students how to beat 2/4, æ, and 4/4 rhythms using their drums.
    • Bring in a tape of Native American music. Have the students listen to it with their eyes closed. Talk about the feelings the music created in them. Talk about the influence of music and how different kinds can make us feel different ways.
    • Have the students make different Native American instruments including drums, rattles, and ankle bells. Have students create music of their own using these instruments.

     

    Art Activities:

    • Show pictures of Native American pottery. Teach students the coiling process of making a pot. Give them some clay and let them create a coil pot of their own.
    • Bring in an example of a Navajo sand painting. Talk about the reasons medicine men made sand paintings. Provide the materials for students to create sand paintings of their own.
    • Show pictures of cornhusk dolls

     

    Reading Activities:

    • Provide information sheets about the Native Americans for the students to read. Have them read in small groups and circle any words that they donít know the definition for. Get back together as a class and discuss.
    • Read an account of the first Thanksgiving to the students. Provide several books for the students to read individually or in small groups. Talk about the similarities and differences between the books they read.
    • Show pictures of Native American pictographs. Talk about the reason Native Americans used pictographs. Have students work with a partner to "read" a pictograph.

     

     

    Culminating Activity Ideas

    • Have a Native American speaker come in and demonstrate some of the things the students have been learning about. For example, have the speaker share a legend, do a native dance, play a native song, etc. Have the students share with the speaker their legends, dances, or songs.
    • Hold a pow wow in the class. Talk about Native American pow wows and what was done there. Do some of the same things in your pow wow. Eat traditional food, perform dances and songs, etc.
    • Hold a Native American assembly for other classes in the school. Have the students give background about Native American music, dance, poetry, and legend. Then have the students share their own music, dances, poetry, and readerís theatres.
    • Have students share their reports on a Native American tribe. Have them bring in one thing to show along with their reports. Have students take notes on reports of others.
    • Complete the KWL. Have students discuss what they learned and what they liked about the unit.
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    Unit Resources

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    Books

    1. Sneve, Virginia Driving Hawk. Dancing Tepees. Scholastic, 1991. ISBN 0-590-44407-7. 31pp. 5-9.
    • Selections of poetry from Native Americans. Some are from contemporary tribal poets.

     

    2. Swamp, Chief Jake. Giving Thanks--A Native American Good Morning Message. Illustrated by Erwin Printup, Jr. Scholastic, 1997. ISBN 0-590-10884-0. 20 pp. 4-7.

    • Based on the Iroquois Thanksgiving Address. Children taught to greet the world each morning by saying thank you to all living things.

     

    3. Jeffers, Susan. Brother Eagle, Sister Sky--A Message from Chief Seattle. Scholastic, 1996. ISBN 0-590-45772-1. 26 pp. 6-9.

    • Chief Seattle gave a message about respecting nature. This is a message to inspire environmental awareness.

     

    4. Krensky, Stephen. Children of the Wind and Water. Illustrated by James Watling. Scholastic, 1994. ISBN 0-590-46963-0. 32 pp. 4-8.

    • Includes five stories about the experiences of the Muskogee, Dakota, Huron, Tlingit, and Nootka children.

     

    5. Krensky, Stephen. Children of the Earth and Sky. Illustrated by James Watling. Scholastic, 1991. ISBN 0-590-42853-5. 32 pp. 4-8.

    • Includes five stories about the experiences of the Hopi, Comanche, Mohican, Navajo, and Mandan children.

     

    6. Grossman, Virginia, and Slyvia Long. Ten Little Rabbits. Trumpet Club, 1992. ISBN 0-440-84860-1. 24 PP. 4-8.

    • Counts to ten using rabbits dressed as Native Americans. Good pictures of rugs made by different tribes.

     

    7. Miles, Miska. Annie and the Old One. Illustrated by Peter Parnall. Little, Brown and Company, 1971. ISBN 0-316-57117-2. 44 PP. 5-9.

    • A story of a Navajo girl and her grandmother. A good way to present the concept of death to children. Also describes the Navajo art of weaving.

     

    8. Brooks, Barbara. The Sioux. Illustrated by Luciano Lazzarino. Rourke Publications, Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-86625-382-3. 31 pp. 8-12.

    • Examines the history, traditional lifestyle, and current situation of the Sioux Indians with an emphasis on the Teton Sioux group.

     

    10.. McCall, Barbara A. The Iroquois. Illustrated by Luciano Lazzarino. Rourke Publications, Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-86625-378-5. 31 pp. 8-12.

    • Examines the history, traditional lifestyle, and current situation of the Iroquois Indians.

     

    11. Hofsinde, Robert. Indian Costumes. Willam Morrow and Company, 1968. ISBN ?. 94 pp. 6-10.

    • Shows drawings and explains the traditional dress of the Apache, Blackfeet, Crow, Iroquois, Navajo, Northwest Coast, Ojibwa, Pueblo, Seminole, and Sioux Indians.

     

    Internet Sites: 

  • Native American Resources - www.execpc.com/~bfilib/native.htm

     The True Thanksgiving - www.night.net/thanksgiving/lesson-plan.html

     Native American Index - www.hanksville.org/NAresources/indices/NAculture.html

     Lesson Plans - www.lennox.k12.ca.us/LPD.html

     Sioux - www.bluecloud.org/culture.html

     Iroquois - www.sixnations.org/

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  • Straw Weaving Instructions:

    1. Cut 3 pieces of one color of yarn to the same length. Thread one piece through each straw. Fold the end of the yarn over the edge of the straw. Secure with tape. Tie ends of yarn in one knot.
    2. Tape 3 straws together at end opposite to already taped ends.
    3. Cut one piece of yarn to desired length to begin weaving. Tie to one of the end straws. Weave yarn in and out between the straws. When you get to the end of one color, add another by tying it to the end of the first piece.
    4. Make tight by continuously pushing yarn down towards the tape. When weaving is complete, take off bottom piece of tape and push yarn off straws. Take straws off yarn completely and tie other ends of yarn into a knot.
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    Last Revised: December 6, 1999

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