How Can Understanding and Helping Others

Build Our Own Community?


 

 Contents

 


This unit was created by Rebecca Warnes, a preservice teacher from Utah State University; rebeccaf@cc.usu.edu. The basis was formed in response to an assignment given by Dr. Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen; Department of Elementary Education from Utah State University. Tricia.gallaghergeurtsen@usu.edu.

Last updated: October 20th, 2003

 

Overview and Rationale

 

This unit is on a social justice issue that is designed for use in the 4th or 5th grade. I have chosen the topic of human disabilities to meet the National Council for the Social Studies' request that we as teachers need to prepare our students to be effective citizens. I believe that, in order to accomplish this, students must be made aware of the cultures around them and realize the differences and commonalities that we all have. Over the course of four weeks, the students will explore what constitutes a disability and how cultures can relate through them. The students will also study how we and our environment can affect individuals with disabilities and therefore, think of ways that we can improve our community through being better citizens.

For this unit, I will be pulling in three of the ten themes that form the framework of the national social studies standards; "Culture", "People, Places and Environments", and "Civic Ideals and Practices". These stand as the core of my rationale and the NCSS describes them as:

Culture: The study of culture prepares students to answer questions such as: What are the common characteristics of different cultures? How do belief systems, such as religion or political ideals, influence other parts of the culture? How does the culture change to accommodate different ideas and beliefs? What does language tell us about the culture? In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with geography, history, sociology, and anthropology, as well as multicultural topics across the curriculum.

People Places and Environments: The study of people, places, and human-environment interactions assists students as they create their spatial views and geographic perspectives of the world beyond their personal locations. Students need the knowledge, skills, and understanding to answer questions such as: Where are things located? Why are they located where they are? What do we mean by "region"? How do landforms change? What implications do these changes have for people? In schools, this theme typically appears in units and courses dealing with area studies and geography.

Civic Ideals and Practices: An understanding of civic ideals and practices of citizenship is critical to full participation in society and is a central purpose of the social studies. Students confront such questions as: What is civic participation and how can I be involved? How has the meaning of citizenship evolved? What is the balance between rights and responsibilities? What is the role of the citizen in the community and the nation, and as a member of the world community? How can I make a positive difference? In schools, this theme typically appears in units or courses dealing with history, political science, cultural anthropology, and fields such as global studies, law-related education, and the humanities.

"These national curriculum standards for social studies represent educators' best thinking about what is needed to educate future citizens to meet [the] challenge…of a constantly evolving system." NCSS

Another key element behind my unit rationale is the consideration, focus and inclusion of the Utah State Core Curriculum for the 4th and 5th grades. These have been elaborated upon as:

4th Grade Overview and Course Description

Students will build on past and present history, government, economics, culture, and geography as they search to understand the present state of Utah. Current events will help students explore Utah's future. Students will enlarge their world connections as they compare Utah to Asia, with an emphasis on the country of Japan. The course is designed to use social studies, character, and life skills as students focus on Utah.

5th Grade Overview and Course Description

Through the lens of time, students will establish a chronology of critical events in the various time periods of United States history. The curriculum is set to teach in three time periods: one-half of the time is to be used in studying the New World and the foundation of our nation; one-fourth, the 19th century (1800-1900); and one-fourth, the 20th century (1900 to the present). Students will examine the impact of people and places on the emergence of United States culture and history. Character and life skills will help students understand citizenship rights and responsibilities.

I firmly believe the NCSS stand that "for social studies to perform its mission of promoting civic competence, students must learn not only a body of knowledge but how to think and how to be flexible in using many resources to resolve civic issues. It is not overstating the case to say that America's future depends on it." Thomas Jefferson, among others, emphasized that the vitality of a democracy depends upon the education and participation of its citizens. So, my intent is to educate my students on their social responsibility to recognize others and help meet their needs. They will see that no matter what culture they come from or disability they have, we are all human and should participate as active citizens.

 


Teacher Background Information

 

This is an overview of the social studies content and concepts that a teacher will need to carry out this unit. In order to be prepared to teach this unit, a teacher would need to know more than just the surface information about several disabilities (Hearing impaired, Sight Impaired, wheelchair dependant, mental illness etc.) A great website for this information is: http://www.rialto.k12.ca.us/frisbie/coyote/lan.arts/disabilities.links.html

The following is a great website on how to treat people with disabilities. It is an etiquette list referred to as the 10 commandments of communicating with people with disabilities: http://www.pdassoc.com/tc.html

We will be implementing ways to get the students to see the commonalities that we all share, no matter what our culture. We all need to eat, sleep, move, breathe, even brush our teeth. Help the students to see how these simple tasks can be harder or easier and how they can be accomplished differently. This should illustrate that if we help each other, things are always easier. What is the saying? "Two heads are better than one." Well, so are two pair of eyes, two hands and two feet.

Learn about your community's needs, resources and facilities. Do you have a deaf and blind school in your area? Check it out: Schools/Programs for the Deaf - United States

Take the time to look into the accommodations that your school and/ or community have made for the accessibility and inclusion of people with disabilities.

Do you have students with disabilities in your classroom or school? It might be nice to discuss this unit with them before implementing it so you can meet the students' needs and help them be comfortable with the subject matter. They may even be able to help you with some activities and lessons. Keep in mind all of your students needs and special interests. You may be able to build lessons that relate to their interest or hobbies. Help them see how they would do the same activities differently if they had certain disabilities. Social studies should always be meaningful to the students and what better way than to teach them that in which they are already interested.

Also remember to review the National and State standards for the Curriculum. You may find inspiration and ideas that I have overlooked that will work wonderfully in your classroom.


UNIT PLANNING CHART

This chart contains ideas for integrated learning experiences, objectives and resources across all subject areas.


Organization and Subject Matter Overview with Goals and Objectives

 

The overall question that will be addressed during the unit is: "How can understanding and helping others build our community?" To answer this question, the unit will focus on the three NCSS Standards: "Culture", "People, Places and Environments", and "Civic Ideals and Practices". The Unit goals specific to these are: 1) Give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference (Ib); 2) Describe ways in which language, stories, folktales, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture (Ic); 3) Compare ways in which people from different cultures think about and deal with their physical environment and social conditions (Id); 4) Describe how people create places that reflect ideas, personality, culture, and wants and needs as they design homes, playgrounds, classrooms, and the like (IIIg); and 5) Identify examples of rights and responsibilities of citizens (Xb).The underlying performance expectations from the Utah Core Objectives are listed below in the chart and support these major unit goals.

The organizing principle of this unit is an in-depth study of these cultures and the special needs or accommodations of those with disabilities. This will guide the students in the discovery of how our cultures and communities interlock and aid them in the realization of responsibility and citizenship that we share in our interdependent society. The unit is based on an inquiry cycle where students first explore a variety of disabilities, then identify commonalities that they share with these individuals and areas that may be problematic. They will look at how one individual's disability can be affected in reference to our own community or school. Later, they will look at the accommodations made to amend these problems and choose a plan for themselves on what they can do to help others and build our community. The unit will be meaningful to the students and involve them actively in community and cultural inquiry because the focus is real-life scenarios in the students' environments and will require them to research, discuss, and implement a plan of action based on their inquiry.

In this classroom social studies is integrated throughout the curriculum. For this aspect of the unit, a 2 hour block each day will be devoted to the learning activities outlined below, and described in detail in the four sample lesson plans in the following section. Some of the activities will be centers where groups of 6-8 will be engaging in work related to the central issue of understanding people with disabilities in our community. However, there will be many times when the teacher will need to work with the whole group in conversation, analysis, synthesis, debate, and decision-making. Students will be processing a lot of data, so there will be a bulletin board where you can put reminders, cues and a picture word wall to help them retain and understand the information. Bulletin boards can also be used to display stories, pictures, facts, poems or work that the students find or create during this unit. They will need a space to find and read sources on the subject matter, discuss what they are finding and to explore their "disabling" activities. Therefore, the classroom set-up should accommodate this kind of work. See the classroom plan below.


ORGANIZATION CHART


CLASSROOM PLAN


LEARNING ACTIVITIES BANK

  • Sample Lesson One

 

Title of Lesson: "I Sign Allegiance…"

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Levels: 4th-5th

Number of Learners: 25-30

Unit Theme: "Can Understanding and Helping Others Build Our Own Community?"

Standards Met: (see below)

Goals: The learners will be able to give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference (NCSS Ib); describe ways in which language, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture (NCSS Ic).

Objectives: Given the materials below, the learners will discuss the deaf culture and learn the pledge of allegiance in American Sign Language, in order to demonstrate cultural understanding and good citizenship (Utah G4.S4.O1).

Materials Needed: Visual of sign language for the pledge found at: http://www.flagday.org/Pages/SigningThePledge.html, make an overhead and a paper copy for each student (25-30), Classroom American Flag, overhead projector, American Sign Language Information: Deaf Kids and Youth, NAD Homepage | National Association of the Deaf , http://www.deaflibrary.org/asl.html, paper, pencils

Motivation: In the morning as the students say the pledge stand where they can all see you and sign it in ASL while saying the words. Your students may get really distracted by this and ask you about it. Some may even know what you are doing. This will be a great lead in later for your lesson. Tell them that you will discuss it later.

Procedures:

1. Before lesson, have overhead ready and in place but not on yet. Place papers over it so that only the first sign is showing.

2. Remind the students that you used hand motions during the pledge.

3. Ask them what their thoughts were. Was it sign language? Who uses sign language? Why would they need to sign?

4. Give the students some facts on ASL and being deaf. Do they know anyone who is deaf? Have them share with the class.

5. Pair the students and have them discuss some problems with not being able to hear (telephone, fire alarm, communication etc.). Let some of them share their ideas with the whole class.

6. Discuss daily routine with kids in respect to being deaf; would deaf children SIGN the pledge every morning? We are going to learn it.

7. Have two students pass out individual papers of the signs while you turn on the overhead.

8. Teach the children each sign one at a time with lots of repetition of phrases.

9. Have them follow along on their worksheet or the over head. If some of the signs are hard to understand have them write a descriptions so they can remember it later.

10. After having gone through the whole thing, turn off overhead and turn over papers and go through the signs with and then without saying the words.

Accommodations: For ESL learners, have their individual sign papers with their own language on it. They can participate just fine with the signs. This activity will be a good one to help relate a few words for them.

Closure: Reiterate how and why ASL is used. Discuss some other forms of communication for deaf people: like telephones that have computer translators and lights. Some deaf people even use dogs like how blind people use Seeing Eye dogs. They help them know if a baby cries or if a fire alarm goes off etc. Discuss how we can help if a deaf person needs our assistance: sign language, gestures, write it down etc.

Assessment/ Evaluation: Walk around and listen while students are in the think-pair-share portion of the lesson. Listen to their understanding of the topic and how they would accommodate for this disability. Make notes to what children may need further information on and follow up.

Extensions:

  • If you finish earlier than planned, you can discuss the history of the pledge of allegiance with the information at this website: http://www.flagday.org/Pages/StoryofPledge.html Discuss how some people want to change the pledge now and how it has changed in the past. This can be a whole group activity or an individual assignment.
  • Have an ASL dictionary (child appropriate) in your class let the students know that it is available and that they can learn more sign language. You may want a couple of copies, it will be popular.
  • You should continue signing the pledge with your class for the rest of the year. You can teach this to other classes or have the students teach their family members.

Teacher Reflection:

 

 


 

  • Sample Lesson Two

 

Title of Lesson: "Move It! It's a Joint Effort."

Time Allotted: 1 hour

Grade Levels: 4th-5th

Number of Learners: 25-30

Unit Theme: "Can Understanding and Helping Others Build Our Own Community?"

Standards Met: (see below)

Goals: The learners will be able to give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference (NCSS Ib); describe ways in which language, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture (NCSS Ic).

Objectives: Given the materials below, the learners will discuss disabilities of restricted movement, participate in constrained joint activities, and discuss how accommodations can be made for these disabilities, in order to demonstrate cultural understanding and good citizenship (Utah G4.S4.O1).

Materials Needed: 10 large splints (yard sticks) and 20 small splints (popsicle sticks) with wraps (bandanas or masking tape), several pairs of gym shorts and coats (can use the students own coats), a waste basket, pencils, chairs, chalk or whiteboard markers and erasers, 2 wadded pieces of paper, 2 dull needles and thread, disinfecting wipes and 3 areas in the classroom or elsewhere to accommodate for the three centers. Type up a list of tasks to be placed at each center. You will also need to copy the worksheet attached for each student.

Motivation: The day before tell the students to bring a comb and wear long sleeve shirt and pants. It would be best if their shoes are buckle or lace up as well.

Procedures:

1. Before the lesson begins have the three centers set up:
  • Knee center: chairs, several pairs of large gym shorts (to put on over clothes).
  • Hand and wrist center: pencils, paper, two wadded pieces of paper, two long pieces of thread, two needles one waste basket.
  • Elbow center: Chalkboard, chalk, erasers, coats, and disinfecting wipes because the students' combs will be used at this station.

2. Place a task list at each center:

  • Knee center: sit down and stand up with out using your hands. Untie, remove, replace and retie your shoes. Put on the gym short over your clothes and take them off.
  • Hand and wrist center: write your name and favorite activity on a piece of paper, through wadded paper into a waste basket (do not let this get out of hand!), and they will thread a needle.
  • Elbow center: Students will write the name of the school on the board and erase it. They will also put on a coat, button it, unbutton it and take it off.

3. Explain that the students will perform task once without splints and then once with the splints on. Model the activities (without splints) and demonstrate the proper use and placement of the splints so that the activity will work well:

  • Knee: Splint along the length of one leg with wraps above and below the knee.
  • Hand and wrist: Splint all fingers and wrist of dominant hand.
  • Elbow: Splint the arm with ties above and below the elbow.

4. Pass out the worksheet and explain to the students that they will record their experiences on them.

5. Number students in appropriate groups and give them the signal of when they are to change to the next station.

6. Let them get to work while you circulate the room and monitor the activities.

7. Allow 15 minutes at each station. Flickering the lights is a good sign for them to move.

Accommodations: Be sensitive to students that do have disabilities or have English as their second language in your room. Assign another student or volunteer to help them through the process and model where necessary.

Closure: Discuss with students their perceived ideas about physical disabilities and their actual experiences - ask for ideas on how people with disabilities can find better ways of doing daily activities.

Assessment/ Evaluation: Have the students write a paragraph about their experience and how they can be good citizens and help if they encounter people with this disability. This can be in their Unit journal or on the back of the worksheet. Have them turned in and evaluate them for their understanding of this culture and how they can be good citizens.

Extension: Watch a motivational movie about someone who overcame their disabilities. If you do not have one, go to the National Science Teacher Association (NSTA) Search for Solutions web site: http://www.nsta.org/sfs and order the free videos: Episode 8: Application, Adaptation & Design - Part I, and Episode 9: Application, Adaptation & Design - Part II. It is about a young lady who has lost the use of her leg and arm but aspires to be a gymnast.

Teacher Reflection:

 

WORKSHEET

 


  •  Sample Lesson Three

 

Title of Lesson: "Disabilities of Abilities: Do You Recognize Me?"

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Levels: 4th-5th

Number of Learners: 25-30

Unit Theme: "Can Understanding and Helping Others Build Our Own Community?"

Standards Met: (see below)

Goals: The learners will be able to give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference (NCSS Ib).

Objectives: Given the materials below, the learners will be able to recognize that everyone has disabilities, learn about people who have, inspite of their disabilities, accomplished great things, and transfer that information to themselves, in order to, promote cultural understanding and good citizenship (Utah G4.S4).

Materials Needed: Blown up pictures of people from the attached list, with their corresponding captions, a mirror, pencils, and a copy of the attached worksheet for each student.

Motivation: Ask the students to name famous people. You might want to write this on the board. Who are their idols? What have they done? Who do they admire for being a genius, athlete or inventor? Ask them if they think that these people are perfect and discuss whether or not someone who is disabled could do something that would make them famous.

Procedures:

1. Before the lesson have the pictures with captions taped in a hallway like an art gallery. At the end of the line, put up the mirror with a question written on it with a dry erase marker: "Can you be famous someday?" Leave the pile of worksheets under the mirror.

2. Have the discussion listed above under motivation. Tell the students that they will be going on a gallery walk.

3. List protocol about being in the hall and not disturbing other classes. Then lead them to the pictures.

4. Allow the students to examine the display and instruct them to take a worksheet as they go back to class.

5. Allow the students time to complete the worksheet.

Accommodations: If there is a child that cannot read English in your class, assign another student to accompany them to read or translate.

Closure: Discuss some of their thoughts on the subject and what they wrote. Do any of the students personally know someone who has accomplished something in spite of a disability? (My cousin Kaitlyn is on the National Special Olympics team for GoBall. She is legally blind.) Help the students understand that we all have some hindrance that may make some activities more difficult but that it is in the solving of the problems that we succeed. We can overcome them with courage, accommodations or help from others and accomplish great things.

Assessment/ Evaluation: Collect the students' papers and assess them for their understanding of the activity and how they can be good citizens and overcome their shortcomings to achieve their dreams. Evaluate the activity in the space provided below.

Extension: if a student finishes early, have them turn their worksheet over and write about a great feat that they might not otherwise attempt but could find a way to overcome and accomplish.

Teacher Reflection:

 

LIST OF FAMOUS PEOPLE and WORKSHEET

 


  •  Sample Lesson Four

 

Title of Lesson: "Peek-a-boo Clay"

Time Allotted: 40 minutes

Grade Levels: 4th-5th

Number of Learners: 25-30

Unit Theme: "Can Understanding and Helping Others Build Our Own Community?"

Standards Met: (see below)

Goals: The learners will be able to give examples of how experiences may be interpreted differently by people from diverse cultural perspectives and frames of reference (NCSS Ib); describe ways in which language, music, and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture and influence behavior of people living in a particular culture (NCSS Ic).

Objectives: Given the materials below, the learners will discuss the disabilities of being blind, participate in a restricted sight activity, and discuss how accommodations can be made for this disability, in order to demonstrate cultural understanding and good citizenship (Utah G4.S4.O1).

Materials Needed: play dough (see attached recipe), newspaper, blindfolds, paper, pencils, plastic bags and hand soap. Information about Edgar Degas can be found at this website: http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/degas/

Motivation: Black out the windows and turn of the lights in the classroom. After you settle everyone down, discuss the disability of being blind for a minute. Have the students think of the things that they would miss or not be able to do. Turn the lights back on and have them pair-share with another student.

Procedures:

1. Before the lesson have play dough made and portioned into plastic bags for each student. (As another activity they can make it and color their own, but for this it is pre-made)

2. Turn the lights back on and have each group share the thing they would miss the most if they could not see.

3. Tie in the idea of doing art; drawing, painting, photography. Have the students come up with activities that they could still do with modifications, especially those that relate to art.

4. Discuss a little about French artist Edgar Degas. When his eyesight began to fail, he became a great sculptor. This is the art medium that we will be working in today. Who knows what sculpture is? Who are some other sculptors?

5. Discuss protocol about handling clay; it does not leave your workspace.

6. Instruct the students on the activity. They will be creating something with their blindfolds on and then trading with a partner. The partner then gently tries to feel what the sculpture is of.

7. Have the students clear their desks and cover with newspaper. Have them get a bag of dough and a blind fold.

8. Divide students into pairs close to their desks and have them put on the blindfolds and get to work.

9. When students have had sufficient time to create, have them carefully trade seats with their partner and talk through what they think the other's project is one at a time. Partners can give hints.

10. After this, have them remove their blindfolds and clean up their dough. They can put them back in the bags and keep them. Have them clean up their newspaper and wash their hands.

11. Have the students discuss in small groups (4-5) how they felt about the activity. Did the hints help? Would hints and visual descriptions be good to help blind people? Have them come up with ideas to help people that are visually impaired and discuss other accommodations (Seeing eye dogs, canes, beeping crosswalks etc.)

Accommodations: ESL students can be paired together if they speak the same language or they can do the activity alone with a written prompt in their own language. Have them write down their feelings and have them translated.

Closure: Do a chart of all of the things that the groups came up with. Help them fill in ideas that they miss. Discuss the commandments of the Ten Commandments of Communicating with People with Disabilities that deal with blind individuals. They can be found at: http://www.pdassoc.com/tc.html

Assessment/ Evaluation: Pay attention to group interaction and responses. An anecdotal record of interaction and valid response would be a great tool. Assess the class chart for accuracy and valid ideas. Remediate where necessary.

Extension: If a student or group finishes early, have them draw a picture with the blindfold on and have a friend remove their blindfold and guess what it is.

Teacher Reflection:

 

 PLAY DOUGH RECIPE:
  • 2 c. flour
  • 1 c. salt
  • 2 c. water
  • 2 Tbsp. cooking oil
  • 2 tsp. cream of tartar
  • food coloring

    Mix all ingredients. Cook over medium heat. Stir until liquid disappears. Remove from heat. Remove to table, divide and knead in colors of choice.

 


 

 ASSESSMENT

 

In the Department of Education at Utah State University, there are eight strands that we build upon to establish our rationale on the different aspects of education. For the assessment strand, assessment is defined as a guide to learning. A teacher should evaluate a student's intellectual growth and skills attainment in order to gain feedback regarding instructional effectiveness. So, a teacher should use this tool for the student as well as for themselves. Assessment should be useful in guiding, directing and perfecting your instruction.

I have chosen, as my main tool for assessment in this unit, for the students to use a unit journal. In this journal they will record their feelings, thoughts, and reactions to the unit as well as include assignments given by the teacher. Keeping it all together shows a wonderful progression of the students understanding from beginning to end.

Other forms of assessment can also be composing a reflective paper, writing a letter (change something that is in opposition to the Americans with Disabilities Act in your school or community), composing class charts or mind maps, and a teacher should always keep a record of his or her students' interactions, level of understanding and input; several anecdotal record formats would be wonderfully appropriate. Look for how your students are, or are not, fulfilling the objectives laid out in the particular lesson. Are they achieving what you want? Are they developing misconceptions? Did they take a different direction in the lesson than you had anticipated? Is it applicable and are you willing to follow their inquiry? These are all things that you should ask yourself through meaningful formal and informal assessment of your students, the lesson and yourself.

 


APPENDIX:

The basis of this unit was formed in response to an assignment given by Dr. Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen; Department of Elementary Education from Utah State University. Tricia.gallaghergeurtsen@usu.edu.

The following is a list of the materials needed for a teacher to implement the four lessons outlined: Lesson 1: Visual of sign language for the pledge found at: http://www.flagday.org/Pages/SigningThePledge.html, make an overhead and a paper copy for each student (25-30), Classroom American Flag, overhead projector, American Sign Language Information: Deaf Kids and Youth, NAD Homepage | National Association of the Deaf , http://www.deaflibrary.org/asl.html, paper, pencils. Lesson 2: 10 large splints (yard sticks) and 20 small splints (popsicle sticks) with wraps (bandanas or masking tape), several pairs of gym shorts and coats (can use the students own coats), a waste basket, pencils, chairs, chalk or whiteboard markers and erasers, 2 wadded pieces of paper, 2 dull needles and thread, disinfecting wipes and 3 areas in the classroom or elsewhere to accommodate for the three centers. Type up a list of tasks to be placed at each center. You will also need to copy the worksheet attached for each student. Lesson 3: Blown up pictures of people from the attached list, with their corresponding captions, a mirror, pencils, and a copy of the attached worksheet for each student. Lesson 4: play dough (see attached recipe), newspaper, blindfolds, paper, pencils, plastic bags and hand soap. Information about Edgar Degas can be found at this website: http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/degas/.

No other resources or sources for the students or teacher were left unlisted in this unit. For specified references, see the Reference section.

 

Picture File for helping people with disabilities:

http://www.advent.ee/meieaeg/index.php?nr=10

http://www.phoenix5.org/Phoenix5.html

http://www.rgklife.com/

Guide Horse Foundation

http://www.alleycatscratch.com/otherworlds/ WolfHoundLinks.htm

 

References:

Lesson 2 revised from:

Schultz, N. Middle School Science: Investigation 14 (Level 7). The University of Oklahoma. Norman Public Schools.

Lesson 3 revised from:

Straub, B. (1997). Famous People Who Had Disabilities. Retrieved from the World Wide Web October 10th, 2003. Site: http://www.northcoast.com/~hope/famous5.txt

Other References:

National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). (1994). Curriculum Standards for Social Studies. Retrieved from the World Wide Web October 9th, 2003. Site: http://www.ncss.org/standards/toc.html

 Utah Education Network. (2000). Social Studies: Core Standards of the Course. ( 4th and 5th grade). Retrieved from the World Wide Web October 9th, 2003. Site: http://www.uen.org

 Utah State University. Elementary Education Strands. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: October 9th, 2003. Site: http://www.coe.usu.edu/eled/