What is Equality and How Does it Affect Me?

 

 

A Unit for 4th Graders

 

 

 

 

taken from: www.claybennet.com

 

 

 

 

By

Brandy Johnson, Diane Erickson, and Lauren Sullivan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Overview and Rationale

 

Teacher Background information

 

Unit Planning Chart

 

Organization and Subject Matter Overview with Goals and Objectives

 

Learning Activities Bank

 

  1. Introduction to: What is Equality and How Has it Affect Me
  2. Martin Luther King Jr.
  3. I Have a Dream
  4. Civil Rights
  5. Segregation and Equality
  6. How Women Got the Right to Vote
  7. Women Making a Difference
  8. Is This Fair?
  9. Introduction lesson for classroom differences: All Students are Important
  10. Families are Different and Important
  11. Math and Me
  12. Final Project: The Commercial

 

Assessment

 

Appendices

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overview and Rationale

 

††††††††††† This unit on social justice issues is designed for the 4th grade.The National Council for the Social Studies says that teachers must help students identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b);recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).In order to achieve this goal we feel it is important for our students to understand diversity, the civil rights of African Americans, the rights of males and females, and student differences in the classroom community.We feel it is important for our students to understand that all people must be treated fairly and equally.We also want them to have knowledge of the fact that not all people have been treated equally and many still experience discrimination.In the 4th grade Utah State Core students focus on ways to help and contribute to their community (Utah, Standard: 4, Objective:2) and show appreciation for other cultures. (Utah, Standard:4, Objective:1).In this unit the students will participate in various activities that give them a first hand look at equality. The activities are based so that they will be meaningful and engaging for every student.

††††††††††† We feel that it is important for students to learn about the history of Civil Rights and equality.They need to understand the role that Martin Luther King Jr. played in getting African Americans their rights and also that he did it in nonviolent way.Martin Luther Kind Jr. has modeled that tension can be solved without hatred and war.Also if you want something bad enough and you are persistent your dreams really can come true. The students also need to be able to reflect on their own rights and dreams and their role in an equal community.

In the forth grade students are to be learning citizenship skills.We believe that teaching students about women getting the right to vote and about gender equality will help students be more appreciative and aware of gender equally.We also believe that social studies should teach students how the past affects their lives today.We believe that through teaching gender equality and how women werenít able to vote since the 1920ís will give our students a better understanding of why women have been left out in history and why they have been stereotyped as the weaker gender.We also believe that itís important for our students to understand that voting hasnít always been a right.We believe that in teaching students that the right to vote is something that others have fought for and have been denied will make them have a greater appreciation for having the right to vote when they turn of age.

We also believe that our lessons in gender equality will help our students see the importance of not discriminating against gender and that one gender is not better or stronger then another.In the Utah State Core fourth graders are to gain an understanding of culture.In teaching about gender equality students can gain an in-depth understanding of how women were treated in the past, how women were treated played a part of created and shaping the U.S. culture, and help students understand why women are sometimes viewed differently then men. We also believe that our lessons in gender equality will help studentís correct misconceptions and stereotypes about gender.Lastly, we believe that teaching our students about gender equality and how it came to be will help teach the idea that everyday people can bring about big/great changes.Everyday people can make a difference, they might not see the results for a long time or maybe not even in their lifetime but they should never give up on what they believe is right and equal.

††††††††††† We feel it is important for students to be knowledgeable and respectful of other cultures and people and learn to identify how those differences help shape our community. Our lessons are designed to help make it meaningful to the lives of our students by incorporating them in activities about them.Each of the four activities in the last four lessons incorporates the studentsí lives by asking questions about themselves, their family and their community.We believe that teachers hold great power in helping to create a community is which people are respectful of one another and understand different cultures and backgrounds.

††††††††††† After completing this unit on equality our students will have deeper understanding of what equality is, how it effected the past and how it affects them everyday of their life.It is our hope that the students will treat each other, their families, their friends, people in their community and anyone they come in contact with in their life with respect and genuine equality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teacher Background Information

††††††††††† In order to teach the lessons on Martin Luther King Jr. and Civil Rights the teacher needs to be familiar with Martin Luther Kind Jr. and his involvement in the Civil Rights.The following is an extraction from the African American Almanac.

 

The life of Martin Luther King Jr.

Any number of historic moments in the civil rights struggle have been used to identify Martin Luther King, Jr. ó prime mover of the Montgomery bus boycott, keynote speaker at the March on Washington, youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate. But in retrospect, single events are less important than the fact that King, and his policy of nonviolent protest, was the dominant force in the civil rights movement during its decade of greatest achievement, from 1957 to 1968.

King was born Michael Luther King in Atlanta on Jan. 15, 1929 ó one of the three children of Martin Luther King Sr., pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, and Alberta (Williams) King, a former schoolteacher. (He was renamed "Martin" when he was about 6 years old.)

After going to local grammar and high schools, King enrolled in Morehouse College in Atlanta in 1944. He wasn't planning to enter the ministry, but then he met Dr. Benjamin Mays, a scholar whose manner and bearing convinced him that a religious career could be intellectually satisfying as well. After receiving his bachelor's degree in 1948, King attended Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pa., winning the Plafker Award as the outstanding student of the graduating class, and the J. Lewis Crozer Fellowship as well. King completed the coursework for his doctorate in 1953, and was granted the degree two years later upon completion of his dissertation.

Married by then, King returned South to become pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. Here, he made his first mark on the civil-rights movement, by mobilizing the black community during a 382-day boycott of the city's bus lines. King overcame arrest and other violent harassment, including the bombing of his home. Ultimately, the U.S. Supreme Court declared bus segregation unconstitutional.

A national hero and a civil-rights figure of growing importance, King summoned together a number of black leaders in 1957 and laid the groundwork for the organization now known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). King was elected its president, and he soon began helping other communities organize their own protests against discrimination.

After finishing his first book and making a trip to India, King returned to the United States in 1960 to become co-pastor, with his father, of Ebenezer Baptist Church.

Three years later, King's nonviolent tactics were put to their most severe test in Birmingham, during a mass protest for fair hiring practices and the desegregation of department-store facilities. Police brutality used against the marchers dramatized the plight of blacks to the nation at large, with enormous impact. King was arrested, but his voice was not silenced: He wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" to refute his critics.

Later that year King was a principal speaker at the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate addresses of his career. Time magazine designated him as its Person of the Year for 1963. A few months later he was named recipient of the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize. When he returned from Norway, where he had gone to accept the award, King took on new challenges. In Selma, Ala., he led a voter-registration campaign that ended in the Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. King next brought his crusade to Chicago, where he launched programs to rehabilitate the slums and provide housing.

In the North, however, King soon discovered that young and angry blacks cared little for his preaching and even less for his pleas for peaceful protest. Their disenchantment was one of the reasons he rallied behind a new cause: the war in Vietnam.

Although he was trying to create a new coalition based on equal support for peace and civil rights, it caused an immediate rift. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) saw King's shift of emphasis as "a serious tactical mistake" the Urban League warned that the "limited resources" of the civil-rights movement would be spread too thin;

But from the vantage point of history, King's timing was superb. Students, professors, intellectuals, clergymen and reformers rushed into the movement. Then, King turned his attention to the domestic issue that he felt was directly related to the Vietnam struggle: poverty. He called for a guaranteed family income, he threatened national boycotts, and he spoke of disrupting entire cities by nonviolent "camp-ins." With this in mind, he began to plan a massive march of the poor on Washington, D.C., envisioning a demonstration of such intensity and size that Congress would have to recognize and deal with the huge number of desperate and downtrodden Americans.

King interrupted these plans to lend his support to the Memphis sanitation men's strike. He wanted to discourage violence, and he wanted to focus national attention on the plight of the poor, unorganized workers of the city. The men were bargaining for basic union representation and long-overdue raises.

But he never got back to his poverty plans. Death came for King on April 4, 1968, on the balcony of the black-owned Lorraine Hotel just off Beale Street. While standing outside with Jesse Jackson and Ralph Abernathy, King was shot in the neck by a rifle bullet. His death caused a wave of violence in major cities across the country.

However, King's legacy has lived on. In 1969, his widow, Coretta Scott King, organized the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Non-Violent Social Change. Today it stands next to his beloved Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. His birthday, Jan. 15, is a national holiday, celebrated each year with educational programs, artistic displays, and concerts throughout the United States. The Lorraine Hotel where he was shot is now the National Civil Rights Museum.

ó Based on The African American Almanac, 7th ed., Gale, 1997.

 

 

In order to teach the lessons on gender equality the teacher needs to have a general understand of when and how women got the right to vote.It wasnít until 1920 when women received the right to vote.Until then women had to go along with what the men voted for and wanted.The women were basically to be seen and not heard.Women had a limited amount of rights. They were seen as a weaker human being because of their gender. The 19th amendment is what legally gave women the right to vote and to have more of a voice in their daily lives.There were many struggles and protests that took place in order for the issue to be acknowledge and changed.Many people helped get the 19th amendment passed but there are two people that really fought and got this movement started.These two ladies are Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.†† Both women believed, dreamt, and never gave up on the idea that women should be able to vote.They believed that women should be given the same rights as men.These two women worked together to help women receive the right to vote.Although neither one lived to see the 19 amendment became part of the U.S. constitution they never gave up in the fight for women to be able to vote. In order to become more knowledgeable about Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and the 19th Amendment teacher can read articles found in lesson six. (attachment #1)

The teacher also needs to understand that all people are equal and important.Being different make us individuals and unique.Itís important that teachers help students identify and appreciate each others differences.Diversity exists in everything we do and every where we go, it is all around us.The more we learn about other peoples differences the more we can learn to love and respect them and cherish our own differences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit Planning Chart

 

Unit Issue: What is Equality and How Has it Affected Me?

Social Skills: respect

Outcomes/Unit Goals:The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b);recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).

Social Studies:

-Martin Luther King Jr. ďI Have a DreamĒ speech

-Role-play equality situations

-Segregation and multiculturalism

-Why did Dr. King receive the Noble Peace Prize

-Discuss Rosa Parks

-Timeline of Civil Rights movement

-Diversity in classroom

-Why didnít women have the right to vote?

-How did women get the right to vote?

-What have women done that has helped are world?

-Do a timeline of women getting the right to vote

-What other areas did women not have a voice in?

Teacher Resources:

-internet

-books

-people who experienced that era

Read Alouds:

-Goiní Someplace Special by Patricia c. Mckissack and Jerry Pinkney

-The Other Side by Jacqueline Woodson

-Freedom Summer by Deborah Wiles

-The Rage Coat by Lauren Mills

-books about fairness, discrimination, segregation, justice, and equality

-books about gender equality

-books about diversity

Students Reading/Literature:

-Biographies of Martin Luther King Jr.

-Read Alouds

-Articles from internet

-Biographies of women who have achieved

Oral Language:

-Prepare own dream speech and recite it

-role-play

-talking with groups and/or pairs

Written Language:

-define words: fairness, segregation, discrimination, justice, and equality

-Research Noble Peace Prize

-Martin Luther King Jr. essay sheet

-books about me (student makes books for themselves)

-written papers

Science:

-cotton

-Earth Day

-Radium

-Radioactivity

-Cancer

Math:

-graphs of: equal pay in past and present, occupations (male/female), political leaders (male/female), diversity

Technology:

-The Cotton Gin

-Research on internet women that made/or are making a difference in the world

-movies

-DVDís

-internet

-projector

Music:

-Song: The World is a Rainbow

-African drum groups/cultural music

-Songs about: gender and itís great to be different

Physical Education/Movement/Health:

-Teach a new activity/game thatís not stereotyped as a male or female activity/game

-Have students create a game/movement thatís for all genders

-Different cultural dances

Accommodations for Learners:

-draw pictures

-label instead of writing

-Verbally tell

-Model for students

-work with others/parent volunteers

Field Trips/Guests:

-Different cultures

-Law makers

-Have a person that lived in the 1920ís come and talk to class.

-Have a council person come in and talk about voting

-Go to an election

Assessment:

-notes

-papers

-observations

-role-plays

-portfolios

-test

Culminating Activity/Unit Projects:

-Commercial

-Make a book about Equality

-Do an assembly about Equality for school

 

Organization and Subject Matter Overview with Goals and Objectives

 

The overall question that will be addressed in this unit is: What is equality and how does it affect me?The unit will address three NCSS standards in particular: Power, Authority, and Governance (6) and Civic Ideals and Practices (10).Our unit goals are the following three NCSS performance expectations: Identify rights and responsibilities (10b), recognize and give examples of tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equality, and justice (6h), Examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and social class (6a).The Utah State Core standard 4 objective 1 and 2 support our goals for this unit.This unit is organized under the same theme (equality) into three different sections.The first section focuses on Civil Rights and Martin Luther King Jr.We chose to address these issues to give the students some background knowledge on equality and social justice.They need to be aware that everyone should be treated fairly, and that in history and still today people are not receiving equality.People who are unaware of their individual rights are more likely to have those rights abused.The second section of this unit focuses on gender equality.We chose to address this issue because we wanted our students to understand that one gender is not stronger or more superior to the other.Again history plays a big role in addressing this issue because women have been treated and represented differently than men.The last section of this unit is to address the issue of equality in the classroom.We feel that it is important for students to be knowledgeable and respectful of other cultures and people and learn how to identify those differences that help shape our community.Teaching equality in the classroom teaches the students the importance of viewing different perspectives and cultures.History is made up of many points of view and is consistently changing.ďInterpretation is an inseparable part of historical understandingĒ (Levstik & Barton pg.7).

 

In this unit, the lessons are integrated across the curriculum.For most of the lessons in this unit, a one hour block is needed every day.The learning activity bank lists lesson that could be taught, however, twelve sample lessons are provided in great detail.All of the activities will be done in groups of 5 or on an individual basis to obtain our main goal: what is equality and how has it affected me? In some of the lessons, the teacher will been to be involved in helping the students lead a conversation and answer questions.Students will be learning about different aspects of equality and transferring their knowledge of equality to their work which will be displayed around the classroom and even the school.In some of the lessons, the students will be moving around from center to center in groups.Because of this, you will need adequate room for these activities.The classroom will be filled with books and other resources on equality so that if students finish their work early, or have a personal inquiry about equality, they will be able to gather and collect their information easily. (see classroom plan below)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

WEEK 4

TOPIC

Civil Rights

Gender Equality

Utah Pioneers

Student Differences

NCSS
STANDARDS

ē The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b)
ēRecognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h)
ē Examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a)

UTAH†††† †††††
OBJECTIVE

4.1 Show appreciation for the uniqueness of other cultures.

4.1 Demonstrate respect for cultural differences and promote cultural understanding and good citizenship.

4.2 Identify ways to help and contribute to the community.

LEARNING
ACTIVITIES

Intro. to Equality
Making a poster and
defining words.

Learned how women
earned their voting rights.

Read aloud about Pioneer
life and write a play.

Make a class quilt to
demonstrate that each
child is important.

Study Martin Luther King
and his fight for equality.

Create a paper about a
women
of their choice.

Discuss why the Utah
Pioneers were moving
west and draw maps.

Participate in centers
that will help students
to understand the
uniqueness of families.

Listen to Martin Luther Kings
ďI have a Dream SpeechĒ
and write their own.

Discuss situations
of fairness.

Play a game about Pioneer
life and see if the students
can last through the winter
with the food supply
they chose.

Incorporate a graph
to demonstrate the
logistics of the classmates.

Students learn what their
rights are and design a
poster after discovering
the feelings of African
Americans through a
coral reading.

Write about a time
when a student felt
discrimination.

Students participate in
a choral reading of the
feelings pioneers felt
as they moved west.

Create a public service
announcement about equality.

Discuss freedom in
The classroom and
design a stamp.

Discuss and write a
story about what it
would be like today
if women couldnít vote.

Play a guessing game
where students have
to guess what or who
they are related to
what they have been
learning.

Students create a
collage about themselves.

 


 

Classroom Plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Learning Activities Bank

 

Lesson One

Title of Lesson: Introduction to: What is Equality and How Has it Affect Me?

Teachers: Diane Erickson, Lauren Sullivan, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted: 1hr 25 minutes

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is Equality and How Does it Affect Me?

Standard(s) Met: (see below)

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).

 

Objectives: The learns will participate in a situation in which unfairness takes place in the classroom, they will reflect on how it made them feel, define and role-play situations in: unfairness, segregation, discrimination, justice and equality, in order to identify situations in which human affect equality for others. (Utah State Core, Standard: 4 Objective: 2)

 

Materials Needed: note (see attachment #1), dictionaries, 4 poster papers, 30pencils, markers, crayons

 

Motivation: Have secretary bring in note. (see attachment #1)

 

Procedures:

  1. Read note to students. (attachment #1).(two minutes)
  2. Send students on list to office to be rewarded.Have principal greet students at lunchroom and reward students with popsicles.Have the principal reinforce the idea that he/she has really noticed the class doing a great job.Have the principal send students back in ten minutes.(13 minutes)
  3. Tell other students that we canít continue with what we were doing since other students are gone because it wouldnít be fair for them to miss out.
  4. Tell the rest of the students that until the others get back we will be cleaning up the room.
  5. Have students pick up papers, clean off selves, spray down counters, clean windows, etc. (13 minutes-until other students get back)
  6. When students get back have all the whole class return to their seats.Have the students tell what they did with the principal in the lunchroom. (3 minutes)
  7. Ask students if it was fair for only some of the class to get rewarded while the others had to stay and clean the classroom.Have a classroom discussion about what just happened and how it made them feel. (5 minutes)
  8. Tell students that over the next few weeks they will be learning about people that were treated unfairly, discriminated, segregated, didnít receive justice, and treated unequally.Itís important that they each understand what the words: unfair, discrimination, segregation, justice, and equality mean.
  9. Have students work in five groups to identify what the words: unfair, discrimination, segregation, justice and equality mean. (2 minutes)
  10. Group the 30 students in 5 groups of 6. (2 minutes)
  11. Give groups their word they will be working on and poster paper. (2 minutes)
  12. Tell the groups they need to find out what the word means by asking each other and looking it up in other resources around the room.They need to write the word and definition on the poster paper.The posters will then be displayed around the room. They then need to develop a three to five minute role-play situation in which (unfairness, discrimination, segregation, justice, or equality) takes place.The role-play needs to help other classmates have a better understanding of unfairness, discrimination, segregation, justice, and equality taking place in life.(4 minutes)
  13. Ask students if anyone ask any question on what they are going to be doing for the next 15 to 20 minutes. (2 minutes)
  14. Let groups work on their poster and developing role-play situation. (15 to 20 minutes)

 

Accommodations: ESL learners will draw a picture of a situation in which they have had to deal with an unfair situation or been treated differently then others.They will also write a caption for their picture.

 

Closure: Each group will share their poster and role-play situations.Also one or two ESL students will share their picture. (25 minutes)

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Listen and take notes on how students define unfairness, discrimination, segregation, justice and equality.Also note how students role-play the situation and what background knowledge they use.File notes on students in their portfolio.

 

Extension: Groups that finish early can make a KWL chart on: unfairness, discrimination, segregation, justice, or equality.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Mrs. Erickson and class,

††††††††††† I have been noticing that your class has been working extra hard.Every time I see your class they are on task, working hard, and learning.I would like to reward your class for a job well done.Please send down the following to the lunchroom: Matt, Sherry, Jaxson, Andrea, Jacob, Julie, Tyler, Braden, Alex, Caleb, Brett, and Rachel to be rewarded for a class that is doing an excellent job!

††††††††††† Thanks for being such great Naples Elementary Wise Owls.Keep up the great work Mrs. Erickson and class!

Sincerely,

Dr. Klien

Naples Elementary Pricipal

 

Lesson Two

Title of Lesson:Martin Luther King Jr.

Teacher(s):Lauren Sullivan, Diane Erickson, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted: 50 min.

Grade Level(s):4th

Number of Learners:30

 

Unit Theme:What is Equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met:See Below

Goal:The learner will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her social group, such as family, peer group and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives:Given the materials, the learner will listen to a read aloud about equality, listen to a poem about Martin Luther King Jr., contribute to a web about him and what he did for the African American people, and write some ideas about how they can make the world a more peaceful place in order to identify ways to help and contribute to the community. (Utah standard 4 objective 2)

 

Materials Needed:Goiní Someplace Special by Patricia C. Mckissack and Jerry Pinkney, Martin Luther King poem by RHL School (attachment #1), 30 pieces of drawing paper, 30 pencils, and 30 copies of Martin Luther King Jr. essay papers. (attachment #3)

 

Motivation:Read the Martin Luther King poem aloud to the class.Who was Martin Luther King Jr.? What is he famous for?What makes him a hero?Why do we celebrate his birthday every year? (5min)

 

Procedures:

  1. Pass out a white sheet of paper to every student.On their piece of paper and on the white board, make a web of what the students know about Martin Luther King Jr. (5min)
  2. Summarize the background information (attachment #2) about Martin Luther King Jr. to the class. (5min)
  3. Add what they have just learned about Martin Luther King Jr. to the web. (4min)
  4. Read Goiní Someplace Special by Patricia C. Mckissack and Jerry Pinkney (7min)
  5. Talk about why people were treated differently and what Martin Luther King Jr. did about it. (5min)
  6. Make sure that the kids understand that he fought for rights, equality, and freedom in a non-violent way. (5min)
  7. Talk about Martin Luther King Jr. receiving the Nobel Peace Prize.Was this a great honor? Why? (7min)
  8. Ask the students what they can do to make the world a more peaceful place. (5 min)
  9. Pass out the Martin Luther King Jr. essay sheets and have them write their ideas of how they can make the world a more peaceful place. (15 min)

 

Accommodations:Provide ESL students with an essay sheet written in Spanish.

 

Closure:Have a few students share their essays with the class. (5min)

 

Assessment/Evaluation:Review each studentís web about Martin Luther King Jr. and essays before filing them in student working portfolio files.

 

Extension:Write your own poem about Martin Luther King Jr.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Martin Luther King, Jr.

You faced injustice, hate and strife.
You fought for what should be.
You risked and finally gave your life,
So others could be free.

You could have hated, but you chose
To love and understand,
Rejecting violence to oppose
An evil in our land.

You'd not inflame, but still inspire,
With hope that wouldn't yield.
You called for boycotts, not for fire,
With faith your only shield.

You marched in protest for the poor
Of every shade and hue.
So many hardships you'd endure
For those who needed you.

You stirred a nation's heart and mind;
Your message still is clear:
That color's not how we're defined.
Your memory's always near.

Each year your birth's a holiday.
The nation honors you,
And wonders when we'll see the day
Your dream at last comes true.

Copyright 1998 RHL www.rhlschool.com

Attachment #2

The life of Martin Luther King Jr.

Any number of historic moments in the civil rights struggle have been used to identify Martin Luther King, Jr. ó prime mover of the Montgomery bus boycott, keynote speaker at the March on Washington, youngest Nobel Peace Prize laureate. But in retrospect, single events are less important than the fact that King, and his policy of nonviolent protest, was the dominant force in the civil rights movement during its decade of greatest achievement, from 1957 to 1968.

King was born Michael Luther King in Atlanta on Jan. 15, 1929 ó one of the three children of Martin Luther King Sr., pastor of Ebenezer Baptist Church, and Alberta (Williams) King, a former schoolteacher. (He was renamed "Martin" when he was about 6 years old.)

After going to local grammar and high schools, King enrolled in Morehouse College in Atlanta in 1944. He wasn't planning to enter the ministry, but then he met Dr. Benjamin Mays, a scholar whose manner and bearing convinced him that a religious career could be intellectually satisfying as well. After receiving his bachelor's degree in 1948, King attended Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pa., winning the Plafker Award as the outstanding student of the graduating class, and the J. Lewis Crozer Fellowship as well. King completed the coursework for his doctorate in 1953, and was granted the degree two years later upon completion of his dissertation.

Married by then, King returned South to become pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Ala. Here, he made his first mark on the civil-rights movement, by mobilizing the black community during a 382-day boycott of the city's bus lines. King overcame arrest and other violent harassment, including the bombing of his home. Ultimately, the U.S. Supreme Court declared bus segregation unconstitutional.

A national hero and a civil-rights figure of growing importance, King summoned together a number of black leaders in 1957 and laid the groundwork for the organization now known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). King was elected its president, and he soon began helping other communities organize their own protests against discrimination.

After finishing his first book and making a trip to India, King returned to the United States in 1960 to become co-pastor, with his father, of Ebenezer Baptist Church.

Three years later, King's nonviolent tactics were put to their most severe test in Birmingham, during a mass protest for fair hiring practices and the desegregation of department-store facilities. Police brutality used against the marchers dramatized the plight of blacks to the nation at large, with enormous impact. King was arrested, but his voice was not silenced: He wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" to refute his critics.

Later that year King was a principal speaker at the historic March on Washington, where he delivered one of the most passionate addresses of his career. Time magazine designated him as its Person of the Year for 1963. A few months later he was named recipient of the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize. When he returned from Norway, where he had gone to accept the award, King took on new challenges. In Selma, Ala., he led a voter-registration campaign that ended in the Selma-to-Montgomery Freedom March. King next brought his crusade to Chicago, where he launched programs to rehabilitate the slums and provide housing.

In the North, however, King soon discovered that young and angry blacks cared little for his preaching and even less for his pleas for peaceful protest. Their disenchantment was one of the reasons he rallied behind a new cause: the war in Vietnam.

Although he was trying to create a new coalition based on equal support for peace and civil rights, it caused an immediate rift. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) saw King's shift of emphasis as "a serious tactical mistake" the Urban League warned that the "limited resources" of the civil-rights movement would be spread too thin;

But from the vantage point of history, King's timing was superb. Students, professors, intellectuals, clergymen and reformers rushed into the movement. Then, King turned his attention to the domestic issue that he felt was directly related to the Vietnam struggle: poverty. He called for a guaranteed family income, he threatened national boycotts, and he spoke of disrupting entire cities by nonviolent "camp-ins." With this in mind, he began to plan a massive march of the poor on Washington, D.C., envisioning a demonstration of such intensity and size that Congress would have to recognize and deal with the huge number of desperate and downtrodden Americans.

King interrupted these plans to lend his support to the Memphis sanitation men's strike. He wanted to discourage violence, and he wanted to focus national attention on the plight of the poor, unorganized workers of the city. The men were bargaining for basic union representation and long-overdue raises.

But he never got back to his poverty plans. Death came for King on April 4, 1968, on the balcony of the black-owned Lorraine Hotel just off Beale Street. While standing outside with Jesse Jackson and Ralph Abernathy, King was shot in the neck by a rifle bullet. His death caused a wave of violence in major cities across the country.

However, King's legacy has lived on. In 1969, his widow, Coretta Scott King, organized the Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Non-Violent Social Change. Today it stands next to his beloved Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta. His birthday, Jan. 15, is a national holiday, celebrated each year with educational programs, artistic displays, and concerts throughout the United States. The Lorraine Hotel where he was shot is now the National Civil Rights Museum.

ó Based on The African American Almanac, 7th ed., Gale, 1997.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Attachment #3

 

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is celebrated in the United States on the third Monday in January.Dr. Kingís birthday is January 15, 1929.

 

Martin Luther King, Jr. was a great Civil Rights leader.He knew the hazards of his work, but he believed in nonviolent protest and the need for change.His integrity demanded that he do the work despite the dangers of hatred and fear.It was a great deal of work for one man, and he knew that he could not do it alone.It was when people joined together the real progress was made.The work of every individual mattered.

 

Dr King has been dead for many years, but his work lives on.How can you help?Use the space below to list the things you can do today to make the world a more peaceful place.

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Lesson Three

Title of Lesson:I Have a Dream

Teacher(s):Lauren Sullivan, Diane Erickson, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted:50 min

Grade Level(s):4th

Number of Learners:30

 

Unit Theme:What is Equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met:See Below

Goal:The learner will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her social group, such as family, peer group and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives:Given the materials, the students will listen to Martin Luther King Jr.ís ďI Have A DreamĒ speech, identify what makes a speech great, think about their dreams for their family and themselves what would it be, and write a speech following the same format that Martin Luther King Jr. used, in order to identify ways to help and contribute to the community. (Utah standard 4 objective 2)

 

Materials Needed:A computer with internet to access an audio clip of ďI have a DreamĒ speech (a text copy is included as attachment #1), 30 pencils, 30 If I had a dream handouts (attachment #2).

 

Motivation:Why do you think people thought that Martin Luther King Jr.ís speech was great?What makes a speech great to you?(Record your studentís remarks on the board) (5 min)

 

Procedures:

1.      Listen to the ďI Have a DreamĒ speech. (10 min)http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/multimedia/IHaveADream.mp3

2.      After listening to the speech, add to the list that you made on the board and continue to discuss why the speech made such a huge impact on the people in the audience. (5 min)

3.      Pass out ďIf you had a dreamĒ handouts. (1min)

4.      Ask your students to think that if they had a dream for themselves and their family what would it be? (5min)

5.      Following the speech outline, have the students write their own ďI have a dreamĒ speech. (20 min)

Accommodations:Have the students draw a picture of their dream if they canít write for themselves.

 

Closure:Have students share their speeches at their tables.Have a few students come to the front of the class and deliver their speeches like Martin Luther King did.

 

Assessment/Evaluation:Review each studentís speech, paying close attention to their dreams for themselves and their family before filing them in student working portfolio files.

 

Extension:If your students finish early, have them revise their speech to make it better.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

 

Attachment #1

I Have a Dream
by Martin Luther King, Jr.
Delivered on the steps at the Lincoln Memorial
in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963

 

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity.

But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition.

In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check, which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check -- a check that will give us upon demand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to this hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of God's children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.

It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment and to underestimate the determination of the Negro. This sweltering summer of the Negro's legitimate discontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equality. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. Those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awakening if the nation returns to business as usual. There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges.

But there is something that I must say to my people who stand on the warm threshold, which leads into the palace of justice. In the process of gaining our rightful place we must not be guilty of wrongful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.

We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy which has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to distrust of all white people, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny and their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone.

And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall march ahead. We cannot turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, "When will you be satisfied?" We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one. We can never be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.

I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive.

Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair.

I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal."

I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor's lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning, "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring."

And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!

Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!

Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California!

But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!

Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!

Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring.

When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

http://www.windmillworks.com/games/dream.htm

 

Attachment #2

If You Had A Dream Essay Sheet

Martin Luther King, Jr.

Directions:

Complete Dr. King's legendary speech in the context of today's world. Replace Dr. King's words found with the parenthesis with your own.

I have a dream that one day this nation will: (will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.")

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

I have a dream that one day: (on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

I have a dream that one day: (even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

I have a dream that: (my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day: (the state of Alabama, whose governor's lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day: (every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

This is our hope... With this faith we will be able to: (hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

This will be the day when: (all of God's children will be able to sing with a new meaning, My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring.)

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

http://www.teach-nology.com/worksheets/misc/mlk/if/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson Four

Title of Lesson:Civil Rights

Teacher(s):Lauren Sullivan, Diane Erickson, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted:50 min

Grade Level(s):4th

Number of Learners:30

 

Unit Theme:What is Equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met:See Below

Goal:The learner will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her social group, such as family, peer group and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives:Given the materials the students will listen to a read aloud about rights, participate in a choral reading dealing with the rights and feelings of the African American people, make a poster about their rights and what they like to do, and share their posters with the class members, in order to show appreciation for the uniqueness of other cultures. (Utah standard 4 objective 1)

 

Materials Needed:The Other Side by Jacqueline Woodson, 30 copies of ďA poem for Choral ReadingĒ by Joan Nichols (attachment #1), 30 poster boards, 30 pencils, and 30 markers.

 

Motivation:Read The Other Side by Jacqueline Woodson.How are the rights of the children in the story different from the rights of your own? (10 min)

 

Procedures:

  1. Pass out a copy of the poem to each of the students. (1 min)
  2. Explain how to do a choral reading.When it says All: everyone speaks in unison. When it says All girls: just the girls speak.When it says All boys: just the boys speak. (3min)
  3. Read the poem together as a class. The first time through have the students follow the teacherís lead. (10 min)
  4. The second time through have the students read without your help really thinking about what they are saying. (10 min)
  5. Hold a discussion about what our rights are as a citizen.Talk about their favorite things to do and ask them if it is a right. (5min)
  6. Have the students make an individual poster about their rights.Have them draw their favorite things to do and write a paragraph about how lucky they are to be free to do those things. (10 min)

 

Accommodations:Have the more advanced students help the special needs students by doing a poster together.

 

Closure:Talk about a few of the studentsí posters.During Martin Luther King Jr.ís time could all the children do these things?Express to the students what a blessing if is to be free and equal. (5 min)

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Observe the students making their posters.Look for rights that are important to them.Hang the posters around the room to remind them of their individual rights.

 

Extension:Have the students write in their journal about the importance of having rights.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

A Poem for Choral Reading

by Joan Nichols

All: Thousands strong, we came together. Martin Luther king, Jr., spoke to us, saying, "I have a dream."

All girls: We listened, remembering our Dreams.

All boys: Bad dreams.

All: Nightmares. Martin Luther King spoke,

Boy: "I have a dream
That one day this nation will rise
Up and live out the true meaning
of its creed:

All boys: We hold these truths to be Self-evident; all men are created Equal."

All: We listened, remembering.

Girl: I remember a hot summer day
And a swimming pool.
Laughing children splashed in
The cool water. I pointed
To the sign by the gate and
Asked, "What does that say?"

All girls: WHITES ONLY!

Girl: Learning those words was easy. They were all over town-In store windows

All girls: WHITES ONLY!

Girl: In city parks

All girls: WHITES ONLY

All: Martin Luther king spoke,

Girl: "I have a dream
That one day...sons of
Former slave-owners will be
Able to sit down together at
The table of brotherhood."

All: We listened, remembering.

Boy: I remember going to the movies.
Black people couldn't enter
The front door or sit
Downstairs like white people
Did. Black people had a
Special side door that led
To the back balcony-
The "colored" section.

Boy: On buses, the first rows
Were for white people.
If those seats were empty and
The rest of the bus was full,
Black people had to stand.
If the first rows were full
And more people got on
The bus, blacks had to get up
So whites could sit.

All: Martin Luther King spoke,
"I have a dream
That my four little children
Will one day live in a nation
Where they will not be judged
By the color of their skin
But by the content of
Their character."

All: We listened, remembering.

Girl: I remember my friend, Nancy. Together, we searched for caterpillars, looked at picture books, dressed our dolls.
Giggled.
One day they told us,
"You can't play together anymore. Black children and white children can't be friends."

All: Martin Luther King spoke,

Boy: "I have a dream
That one day little black boys
And little black girls
Will be able to join hands
With little white boys and white
Girls and walk together as
Brothers and sisters.
I have a dream today."

All: Dr. King led the Montgomery Bus boycott.

Girl: One day, Mrs. Rosa Parks boarded a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama.
She was tired.
She sat down.

Boy: "Get up," the bus driver said.
"Give this white man a seat."

Girl: Mrs Parks said,

All: "No!"

Boy: When Mrs. Parks was arrested, Dr King told the people of Montgomery that if Blacks couldn't ride the buses with freedom and dignity, they shouldn't ride at all.

All: And so they walked.
Men and women, boys and girls,
Through rain and cold,
For months and months,
For miles and miles,
They walked.

Girl: The boycott was a success. Now blacks and whites ride the buses together, as equals.

All: Martin Luther King, Jr., led the Birmingham marches. After the adults were put in jail, he called upon the children.

Girl: The children marched.
A thousand strong.
Some were only six years old.
Police arrested them.
School buses carried them
to jail.
A policeman looked down at one
Small girl and asked,
"What do you want?"
She looked at him and said,

All girls: "Freedom."

Girl: Nothing could stop those children.
On the way to jail they chanted,

All: We want freedom!
We want freedom!
We want freedom!

Boy: The children marched.
They prayed.
They wouldn't turn back.
The police, the firemen
Stood waiting.
Orders were given:
"Stop those children
Any way you can."
But the police, the
Firemen fell back.
And the children marched through.
No one stopped them.
No one hurt them.
The children sang,

All: "I got freedom."
Martin Luther King spoke.
And we listened, for he was
Saying, what we needed to hear.

All boys: "Let freedom ring!"

All girls: From the prodigious hilltops
Of
New Hampshire.

All boys: Let freedom ring!

All girls: From the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!

All boys: Let freedom ring!

All girls: From the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado.

All boys: Let freedom ring!

All girls: From the curvaceous slopes of California.

Boy: And when we allow freedom
To ring.
When we let it ring from
Every village and hamlet,
From every state and every city,
We will be able to speed up that
Day when all God's children,
Black men and white men,
Jews and Gentiles,
Protestants and Catholics,
Will be able to join hands
And sing in the words of that
Old Negro spiritual,

All: "Free at last! Free at last!
Thank God almighty,
We are free at last.

The quoted words of Martin Luther King, Jr., are from the speech he gave at the March on Washington, August 28, 1963.

Suggested Literature for the Classroom

Keep these books in a special center at which you may include posters, articles, and photographs of Martin Luther King.

Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Holiday House, 1989.

Lowery, Linda. Martin Luther King Day. Scholastic, 1987.

Millender, Dharathula H. Martin Luther King, Jr.-Young Man With a Dream. Macmillan.

Sterling, Dorothy. Tear Down the Wall! A History of the American Civil Rights Movement. Doubleday.

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson Five

Title of Lesson:Segregation and Equality

Teacher(s):Lauren Sullivan, Diane Erickson, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted:50 min

Grade Level(s): 4th

Number of Learners:30

 

Unit Theme:What is Equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met:See Below

Goal:The learner will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relation to his or her social group, such as family, peer group and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives:Given the materials, the learners will listen to a read aloud about freedom and equality, participate in a discussion about freedom and equality in our classroom, school, neighborhood, and city, and design a stamp for equality in the classroom in order to show appreciation for the uniqueness of other cultures. (Utah standard 4 objective 1)

 

Materials Needed:Freedom Summer by Deborah Wiles, 30 pieces of drawing paper, 30 pencils, and 30 markers.

 

Motivation:Read Freedom Summer by Deborah Wiles. (7 min)

 

Procedures:

  1. Have a discussion on freedom and equality.What does it mean to be free? What does equality mean?Do we have equality in our classroom? (5 min)
  2. How can we have equality in our classroom? School? Neighborhood? City? (5min)
  3. Have the students design a stamp for equality in the classroom with the paper, pencils, and markers provided. (20 min)

 

Accommodations:Provide tutors for students with special needs.

 

Closure:Post each students stamp around the room.Have your students vote on their favorite stamp.This stamp will become the class stamp for equality. (10 min)

 

Assessment/Evaluation:Review studentsís stamp about equality before filing them in student working portfolio files.

 

Extension:Write a story about your stamp.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

 

Lesson Six

Title of Lesson: How Women Got the Right to Vote

Teachers: Diane Erickson, Lauren Sullivan, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted: 45 minutes

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met: (see below)

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).

 

 

Objectives: Given [materials], the learners will read articles: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Luccretia Mott, Seneca Fall Convention, and 19th Amendment, identify key points in reading, and create a poster to help explain to the rest of the class how what they read played a role in women getting the right to vote, in order to identify why there was a need and want action women took to get the right to vote. (Utah Core: 4th grade, Standard: 3, Objective: 1)

 

Materials Needed: white board marker, Susan B. Anthony article, Elizabeth Cady Stanton article, Luccretia Mott article, 19th Amendment article, and Seneca Fall Convention article (attachment #1 for articles), 6 poster papers, pencils, markers, crayons and tape.

 

Motivation:Tell students that today they are going to have fifteen minutes of free time since they all have been working so hard and staying on task.As a class they will list ideas and then vote on one.Whatever idea gets the most votes is what the whole class will be doing for fifteen minutes later on that day. (2 minutes)

 

Procedures:

  1. Write five or six ideas down on the board that students suggest.Only call on boy to give ideas. (3 minutes)
  2. Tell the class that itís time to vote.Only the boys will be voting on what the class will be doing today during free time.
  3. Have boys vote. (3 minutes)
  4. Tell the students that at the end of the day the class will be doing what they as a class voted for.Ask if anyone has any questions.
  5. If no one says that this vote was unfair ask: Does anyone feel that itís unfair that the girls of the class didnít get to vote even though they are part of the class and they are going to participate in the activity? (3 minutes)
  6. Tell the students that until the 1920 women werenít able to vote.Women didnít have the rights they now have.They had to follow and go along with what the men voted for and wanted.
  7. Ask girls in class how they would feel if they werenít able to vote.Ask students if this was fair or equal and why? (3 minutes)
  8. Tell students that today we are going to learn more about how women got the right to vote and why there was a need for women to have a voice in government.
  9. Explain to the class that they will be working in their base groups.They will be given materials to read as a group so they can learn more about how women got the right to vote.After reading the materials provided, the group needs to create a poster on the subject they learned about to share with the rest of the class.Tell the students that they might find it helpful to organize the information they found in a graphic organizer.Each group also needs to pick a spokesperson to explain their poster to the rest of the class. (5 minutes)
  10. Ask class if anyone has questions or needs to have anything clarified for what they are suppose to be working on for the next 25 minutes.
  11. Hand out materials to group (attachment #1) and let them work. (25 minutes)

 

Accommodations:If a group finishes early they can reflect in their journal about what they read and why itís important that women were able to vote.

 

Closure:Have one spokesperson from every group explain their poster the rest of the class. (10 minutes)

 

Assessment/Evaluation:Review posters for understand of how women got the right to vote and why there was a need for women to have a voice in government.Display posters in the classroom.

 

Extension:Groups that finish early can create a list or situations were women werenít given the equal rights or opportunities as men.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Susan B. Anthony

 

Susan Brownell Anthony 1820-1906.Susan B. Anthony taught school in New Rochelle and Canajoharie, NY, and discovered that male teachers were paid several times her salary. She devoted her first reform efforts to anti-slavery and to temperance, the campaign to curb alcohol. But when she rose to speak in a temperance convention, she was told, "The sisters were not invited here to speak!" Anthony promptly enlisted in the cause of women's rights.

In a lifelong partnership with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Anthony's organizational skill and selfless dedication built the women's rights movement. The ballot, she became increasingly to believe, was the necessary foundation for all other advances. When she and Stanton published a newspaper, they called it The Revolution. Its motto was "Men their rights and nothing more; women their rights and nothing less." In order to press a test case of her belief that women, as citizens, could not be denied the ballot, Anthony voted. She was tried, convicted and fined for voting illegally.

For over thirty years she traveled the country almost ceaselessly working for women's rights. In 1906, her health failing, Anthony addressed her last women's suffrage convention. Although she sensed that the cause would not be won in her lifetime, she looked out across the assembled women and told them, "Failure is impossible."

 

 

Reference:

Hemping, C (2000). A Personal Timeline.Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.snowcrest.net/mhemping/TIMELINE.html

Susan B. Anthony

Susan B. Anthony was raised in New York as a Quaker. She taught for a few years at a Quaker seminary and from there became a headmistress at a women's division of a school. At 29 years old Anthony became involved in abolitionism and then temperance. A friendship with Amelia Bloomer led to a meeting with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was to become her lifelong partner in political organizing, especially for women's rights and woman suffrage.

Stanton, married and mother to a number of children, served as the writer and idea-person of the two, and Susan B. Anthony, never married, was more often the organizer and the one who traveled, spoke widely, and bore the brunt of antagonistic public opinion.


Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
(click image for a larger version)
Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Modifications © 2003 Jone Johnson Lewis. Licensed to About.com.

After the Civil War, discouraged that those working for "Negro" suffrage were willing to continue to exclude women from voting rights, Anthony became more focused on woman suffrage. She helped to found the American Equal Rights Association in 1866, and in 1868 with Stanton as editor, became publisher of Revolution. Stanton and Anthony founded the National Woman Suffrage Association, larger than its rival American Woman Suffrage Association with which it finally merged in 1890.

In 1872, in an attempt to claim that the constitution already permitted women to vote, Susan B. Anthony cast a test vote in Rochester, New York, in the presidential election. She was found guilty, though she refused to pay the resulting fine (and no attempt was made to force her to do so).

In her later years, Anthony worked closely with Carrie Chapman Catt, retiring from active leadership of the suffrage movement in 1900 and turning over presidency of the NAWSA to Catt. She worked with Stanton and Mathilda Gage on a History of Woman Suffrage.

Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony
(click image for a larger version)
Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Modifications © 2003 Jone Johnson Lewis. Licensed to About.com.

In her writings, Anthony occasionally mentioned abortion. Anthony opposed abortion, which at the time was an unsafe medical procedure for women, endangering their health and life. She blamed men, laws and the "double standard" for driving women to abortion because they had no other options. ("When a woman destroys the life of her unborn child, it is a sign that, by education or circumstances, she has been greatly wronged." 1869) She believed, as did many of the feminists of her era, that only the achievement of women's equality and freedom would end the need for abortion. Anthony used her anti-abortion writings as yet another argument for women's rights.

Some of Anthony's writings were also quite racist by today's standards, particularly those from the period when she was angry that the Fifteenth Amendment wrote the word "male" into the constitution for the first time in permitting suffrage for freedmen. 

She sometimes argued that educated white women would be better voters than "ignorant" black men or immigrant men.

In the late 1860s she even portrayed the vote of freedmen as threatening the safety of white women.  George Francis Train, whose capital helped launch Anthony and Stanton's Revolution newspaper, was a noted racist.

In 1979, Anthony's image was chosen for the new dollar coin, making her the first woman to be depicted on US currency. The size of the dollar was, however, close to that of the quarter, and the Anthony dollar never became very popular. In 1999 the US government announced the replacement of the Anthony dollar with one featuring the image of Sacagawea.

Reference:

Susan B. Anthony. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1815-1902 "Oh my daughter, I wish you were a boy!" her father said, grieving at the death of his only son. Young Elizabeth vowed to prove him wrong. She worked hard to excel in Greek, Latin, and mathematics, and obtained the finest education then available to women at Troy Female Seminary. When she married Henry Stanton, an activist in the anti-slavery cause, the word "obey" was omitted from the ceremony at her insistence.

Their honeymoon journey was to the great World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840. After the women delegates were not seated, Stanton was convinced that women should hold a convention for their own rights. This decision was delayed until her move to Seneca Falls, where she was isolated and increasingly exhausted by a growing family. Finally in July 1848, she met with Lucretia Mott and three other Quaker women in nearby Waterloo. Together they issued the call for the first woman's rights convention.

Stanton drafted the Seneca Falls Convention's Declaration of Sentiments and argued forcefully for the ballot, a radical demand opposed by her husband and even Mrs. Mott. Soon thereafter she met Susan B. Anthony and they formed what would be a lifelong partnership devoted to the cause. Among their earliest targets were the laws that discriminated against married women, denying them the right to hold property, or wages, or guardianship of their children.

Stanton was the founding genius of the women's rights movement, brilliant, insightful and eloquent. While Anthony focused more and more on suffrage, Stanton continued to range widely. She took a daring stand in favor of more liberal divorce laws, for example. When her seven children were no longer small, she toured the country repeatedly, calling for voting rights, coeducation, dress reform, and other advances. She never slackened nor grew cautions with age.

 

Reference:

Hemping, C (2000). A Personal Timeline.Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.snowcrest.net/mhemping/TIMELINE.html

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

When Elizabeth Cady married abolitionist Henry Brewster Stanton in 1840, she'd already observed enough about the legal relationships between men and women to insist that the word obey be dropped from the ceremony.

An active abolitionist herself, Stanton was outraged when the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, also in 1840, denied official standing to women delegates, including Lucretia Mott. In 1848, she and Mott called for a women's rights convention to be held in Seneca Falls, New York. That convention, and the Declaration of Sentiments written by Stanton which was approved there, is credited with initiating the long struggle towards women's rights and woman suffrage.


Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
(click image for a larger version)
Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
Modifications © 2003 Jone Johnson Lewis. Licensed to About.com.

After 1851, Stanton worked in close partnership with Susan B. Anthony. Stanton often served as the writer and Anthony as the strategist in this effective working relationship. After the Civil War, Stanton and Anthony were among those who were determined to focus on female suffrage when only voting rights of freed males were addressed in Reconstruction. They founded the National Woman Suffrage Association and Stanton served as president.

When the NWSA and the rival American Woman Suffrage Association finally merged in 1890, Stanton served as the president of the resulting National American Woman Suffrage Association.

In her later years she added to her speech- and article-writing a history of the suffrage movement, her autobiography Eighty Years and More, and a controversial critique of women's treatment by religion, The Woman's Bible.

While Stanton is best known for her long contribution to the woman suffrage struggle, she was also active and effective in winning property rights for married women, equal guardianship of children, and liberalized divorce laws so that women could leave marriages that were often abusive of the wife, the children, and the economic health of the family.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton died in New York on October 26, 1902, with nearly 20 years to go before the United States granted women

Reference:

Elizabeth Cady Stanton. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

 

Lucretia Mott

 

Lucretia Mott, 1793-1880 The daughter of a sea captain, Lucretia Coffin spent her childhood on Nantucket Island. She was reared in the Quaker faith, unique among American religions in encouraging the equality of women. In 1811 she married James Mott and they made their home in Philadelphia. Soon she began to speak in Quaker meetings, developing confidence and eloquence that were rare at a time when women seldom spoke in public.

In the 1830s Mott advocated the radical idea that slavery was sinful and must be abolished. She was one of several American delegates to the 1840 World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, but the women were denied seats. The lesson was clear for Mott and young Elizabeth Cady Stanton. How could women fight for the rights of others unless they enjoyed rights of their own? In 1848, while Mott was visiting her sister in Auburn, New York, she met with Stanton and helped to plan the first woman's rights convention. Mott delivered the opening and closing addresses at the Seneca Convention, and her husband James chaired the proceedings at the Wesleyan Chapel.

Motivated by her religious convictions, Mott dedicated herself to the twin causes of antislavery and women's rights. She harbored runaway slaves in her Philadelphia home and agitated for Negro suffrage and education when emancipation was finally won. As she wrote, spoke, and attended women's conventions, younger feminists recognized that Mott's early leadership had been crucial in the infancy of the women's rights movement.

 

Reference:

Hemping, C (2000). A Personal Timeline.Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.snowcrest.net/mhemping/TIMELINE.html

 

 

Lucretia Mott

 

Born Lucretia Coffin into a Quaker community in Massachusetts, "thoroughly imbued with women's rights" (in her words). She married James Mott, and after their first child died at age 5, became more involved in her Quaker religion. By 1818 she was serving as a minister. She and her husband followed Elias Hicks in the "Great Separation" of 1827, opposing the more evangelical and orthodox branch.

Like many Hicksite Quakers including Hicks, Mott considered slavery an evil to be opposed. They refused to use cotton cloth, cane sugar, and other slavery-produced goods. With her skills in ministry she began to make public speeches for abolition. From her home in Philadelphia, she began to travel, usually accompanied by her husband who supported her activism. They often sheltered runaway slaves in their home.


Lucretia Mott
Image courtesy Library of Congress
Modifications © Jone Johnson Lewis

In America she helped organize women's abolitionist societies, since the anti-slavery organizations would not admit women as members. In 1840, she was selected as a delegate to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, which she found controlled by anti-slavery factions opposed to public speaking and action by women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton later credited conversations with Lucretia Mott, while seated in the segregated women's section, with the idea of the holding a women's rights convention.

It was not until 1848, however, before Mott and Stanton and others could bring together a local women's rights convention in Seneca Falls

. The "Declaration of Sentiments" written primarily by Stanton and Mott was a deliberate parallel to the "Declaration of Independence": "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal."

Mott was a key organizer in the broader-based convention for women's rights held in Rochester, New York, in 1850, at the Unitarian Church.

Mott's theology was influenced by Unitarians including Theodore Parker and William Ellery Channing as well as early Quakers including William Penn. She taught that "the kingdom of God is within man" (1849) and was part of the group of religious liberals who formed the Free Religious Association in 1867, with Rabbi Wise and Ralph Waldo Emerson and Thomas Wentworth Higginson.

Elected as the first president of the American Equal Rights Convention after the end of the Civil War, Mott strove a few years later to reconcile the two factions that split over the priorities between woman suffrage and black male suffrage. She continued her involvement in causes for peace and equality through her later years. Mott died in 1880, twelve years after her husband's death

Reference:

Lucretia Mott. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

Declaration of Sentiments, Seneca Falls, New York, 1848


A "Declaration of Sentiments" is Drafted These were patriotic women, sharing the ideal of improving the new republic. They saw their mission as helping the republic keep its promise of better, more egalitarian lives for its citizens. As the women set about preparing for the event, Elizabeth Cady Stanton used the Declaration of Independence as the framework for writing what she titled a "Declaration of Sentiments." In what proved to be a brilliant move, Stanton connected the nascent campaign for women's rights directly to that powerful American symbol of liberty. The same familiar words framed their arguments: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

In this Declaration of Sentiments, Stanton carefully enumerated areas of life where women were treated unjustly. Eighteen was precisely the number of grievances America's revolutionary forefathers had listed in their Declaration of Independence from England.

Stanton's version read, "The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman, having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over her. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world." Then it went into specifics:

Married women were legally dead in the eyes of the law
Women were not allowed to vote
Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation
Married women had no property rights
Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity
Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women
Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes
Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned
Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law
Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students
With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church
Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men

Strong words... Large grievances... And remember: This was just seventy years after the Revolutionary War. Doesn't it seem surprising to you that this unfair treatment of women was the norm in this new, very idealistic democracy? But this Declaration of Sentiments spelled out what was the status quo for European-American women in 1848 America, while it was even worse for enslaved Black women.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton's draft continued: "Now, in view of this entire disenfranchisement of one-half the people of this country, their social and religious degradation, -- in view of the unjust laws above mentioned, and because women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of these United States."

That summer, change was in the air and Elizabeth Cady Stanton was full of hope that the future could and would be brighter for women.

Reference:

Eisenberg, B and Ruthsdotter, M. (1998). A "Declaration of Sentiments" is Drafted. Retrieved

September 29, 2003 from http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

The Seneca Falls Convention

The seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, the conference that refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from America because of their sex. Stanton, the young bride of an antislavery agent, and Mott, a Quaker preacher and veteran of reform, talked then of calling a convention to address the condition of women. Eight years later, it came about as a spontaneous event.


In July 1848, Mott was visiting her sister, Martha C. Wright, in Waterloo, New York. Stanton, now the restless mother of three small sons, was living in nearby Seneca Falls. A social visit brought together Mott, Stanton, Wright, Mary Ann McClintock, and Jane Hunt. All except Stanton were Quakers, a sect that afforded women some measure of equality, and all five were well acquainted with antislavery and temperance meetings. Fresh in their minds was the April passage of the long-deliberated New York Married Woman's Property Rights Act, a significant but far from comprehensive piece of legislation. The time had come, Stanton argued, for women's wrongs to be laid before the public, and women themselves must shoulder the responsibility. Before the afternoon was out, the women decided on a call for a convention "to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman."


To Stanton fell the task of drawing up the Declaration of Sentiments that would define the meeting. Taking the Declaration of Independence as her guide, Stanton submitted that "all men and women had been created equal" and went on to list eighteen "injuries and usurpations" -the same number of charges leveled against the King of England-"on the part of man toward woman."


Stanton also drafted eleven resolutions, making the argument that women had a natural right to equality in all spheres. The ninth resolution held forth the radical assertion that it was the duty of women to secure for themselves the right to vote. Elizabeth Cady Stanton afterwards recalled that a shocked Lucretia Mott exclaimed, "Why, Lizzie, thee will make us ridiculous." Stanton stood firm. "But I persisted, for I saw clearly that the power to make the laws was the right through which all other rights could be secured."


The convention, to take place in five days' time, on July 19 and 20 at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Seneca Falls, was publicized only by a small, unsigned notice placed in the Seneca County Courier. "The convention will not be so large as it otherwise might be, owing to the busy time with the farmers," Mott told Stanton, "but it will be a beginning."


A crowd of about three hundred people, including forty men, came from five miles round. No woman felt capable of presiding; the task was undertaken by Lucretia's husband, James Mott. All of the resolutions were passed unanimously except for woman suffrage, a strange idea and scarcely a concept designed to appeal to the predominantly Quaker audience, whose male contingent commonly declined to vote. The eloquent Frederick Douglass, a former slave and now editor of the Rochester North Star, however, swayed the gathering into agreeing to the resolution. At the closing session, Lucretia Mott won approval of a final resolve "for the overthrowing of the monopoly of the pulpit, and for the securing to woman equal participation with men in the various trades, professions and commerce." One hundred women and men signed the Seneca Falls Declaration-although subsequent criticism caused some of them to remove their names.


The proceedings in Seneca Falls, followed a few days later by a meeting in Rochester, brought forth a torrent of sarcasm and ridicule from the press and pulpit. Noted Frederick Douglass in the North Star: "A discussion of the rights of animals would be regarded with far more complacency by many of what are called the wise and the good of our land, than would be a discussion of the rights of woman."


But Elizabeth Cady Stanton, although somewhat discomforted by the widespread misrepresentation, understood the value of attention in the press. "Just what I wanted," Stanton exclaimed when she saw that James Gordon Bennett, motivated by derision, printed the entire Declaration of Sentiments in the New York Herald. "Imagine the publicity given to our ideas by thus appearing in a widely circulated sheet like the Herald. It will start women thinking, and men too; and when men and women think about a new question, the first step in progress is taken."


Stanton, thirty-two years old at the time of the Seneca Falls Convention, grew gray in the cause. In 1851 she met temperance worker Susan B. Anthony, and shortly the two would be joined in the long struggle to secure the vote for women. When national victory came in 1920, seventy-two years after the first organized demand in 1848, only one signer of the Seneca Falls Declaration-Charlotte Woodward, a young worker in a glove manufactory -had lived long enough to cast her ballot.

 

Reference:

Smithsonian, I. (2000). The Seneca Falls Convention. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.npg.si.edu/col/seneca/senfalls1.htm

 

19 Amendment


On January 10, 1918, the house approved the 19th Amendment, which said that the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any other state on account of sex. Many states granted suffrage to women before the actual ratification of the amendment, but finally after a year and a half, the senate passed the amendment on June 19, 1919. The 19th Amendment became part of the US Constitution on August 26, 1920 when it was approved by Tennessee.

 

Reference:

Nemeth, D. (2000). 19 Amendment. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http: campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/USA/19Amend.html


The Constitution: The 19th Amendment

 

The amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920.

Between 1878, when the amendment was first introduced in Congress, and August 18, 1920, when it was ratified, champions of voting rights for women worked tirelessly, but strategies for achieving their goal varied. Some pursued a strategy of passing suffrage acts in each state--nine western states adopted woman suffrage legislation by 1912. Others challenged male-only voting laws in the courts. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. Often supporters met fierce resistance. Opponents heckled, jailed, and sometimes physically abused them.

By 1916, however, almost all of the major suffrage organizations were united behind the goal of a constitutional amendment. When New York adopted woman suffrage in 1917 and when President Woodrow Wilson changed his position to support an amendment in 1918, the political balance began to shift in favor of the vote for women. On May 21, 1919, the House of Representatives passed the amendment, and 2 weeks later, the Senate followed. When Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the amendment on August 18, 1920, the amendment passed its final hurdle of obtaining the agreement of three-fourths of the states. Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby certified the ratification on August 26, 1920, and the face of the American electorate changed forever.

 

Reference:

The Constitution: The 19th Amendment. (n.d). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http: www.nara.gov/exhall/charters/constitution/19th/19th.html




Women's Fight for the Vote: The Nineteenth Amendment


The beginning of the fight for women suffrage is usually traced to the "Declaration of Sentiments" produced at the first woman's rights convention in Seneca Falls, N. Y. in 1848. Four years later, at the Woman's Rights Convention in Syracuse in 1852, Susan B. Anthony joined the fight, arguing that "the right women needed above every other...was the right of suffrage." During debates on the Reconstruction Amendments which extended the vote to ex-slaves (through the 15th Amendment), suffragists pushed hard for "universal suffrage," but they never had a chance.

In 1872, a suffragists brought a series of court challenges designed to test whether voting was a "privilege" of "U. S. citizenship" now belonging to women by virtue of the recently adopted 14th Amendment. One such challenge grew out of a criminal prosecution of Susan B. Anthony for illegally voting in the 1872 election. The first case to make its way to the Supreme Court, however, was Minor vs Happersett (1875). In Minor, a unanimous Court rejected the argument that either the privileges and immunities clause or the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment extended the vote to women. Following Minor, suffragists turned their attention from the courts to the states and to Congress.

In 1878, a constitutional amendment was proposed that provided "The right of citizens to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." This same amendment would be introduced in every session of Congress for the next 41 years.

In July 1890, the Territory of Wyoming, which allowed women to vote, was admitted as a state. Wyoming became the first state with women suffrage. By 1900, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho joined Wyoming in allowing women to vote.

In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive (Bull Moose) Party became the first national political party to have a plank supporting women suffrage. The tide was beginning to turn.

In May 1919, the necessary two-thirds vote in favor of the women suffrage amendment was finally mustered in Congress, and the proposed amendment was sent to the states for ratification. By July 1920, with a number of primarily southern states adamantly opposed to the amendment, it all came down to Tennessee. It appeared that the amendment might fail by one vote in the Tennessee house, but twenty-four-year-old Harry Burn surprised observers by casting the deciding vote for ratification. At the time of his vote, Burns had in his pocket a letter he had received from his mother urging him, "Don't forget to be a good boy" and "vote for suffrage." Women had finally won the vote.

 

Reference:

Women's Fight for the Vote: The Nineteenth Amendment. (n.d). Retrieved September 29, 2003

from http: www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm

 

 

Lesson 7

Title of Lesson: Women Making a Difference

Teachers: Diane Erickson, Lauren Sullivan, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted: 75 minutes

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met: (see below)

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b);recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).

 

Objectives: Given book with biographies of women, the learners will research women that made a difference in the world, gather notes, and write a paper on the woman they learned about to help others learn about what accomplishments women have done, in order to learn and demonstrate an appreciation for women in history.†† (Utah Core: 4th grade, Standard: 4, Objective: 1)

 

Materials Needed: biography books (see attachment #1), 30 piece of paper for notes, 30 piece of paper for writing, 30 pencils, chart with three points of what students are suppose to write about, and markers.

 

Motivation: Ask class: How many of you know a women scientist, inventor, judge, or hero?Can women be scientist, inventors, judges, or heroes?Could they be in the past?(5 minutes)

 

Procedures:

  1. Tell students that today they are going to have the opportunity to learn about amazing women that have helped our world.Some of these women lived in a time period where they werenít given the same opportunities or rights as men so they had to work extra hard and never give up on their dreams. (2 minutes)
  2. Explain to students that they will each be able to choice a book to read that portrays an amazing woman so they can learn more about that person.Suggest that they might find it helpful to take notes while they read.After they have finished they will write about the person they read about.They should tell:
    1. Who the person is (name, place of birth, where they lived, etc.)
    2. What the person did
    3. One interesting fact about them or something that you would like to share with others.
  3. Tell students that they can include other information if they would like but they need to at least address these three points in their paper. (above points:a,b,c)Have the three points that children are going to write about on chart paper so students can easily review what they are suppose to be collecting and writing about. 5 minutes)
  4. Tell the students that after everyone has finished and turned in their papers, you (the teacher) will put them all together and create a book.As a class they will pick a title for the book.(2 minutes)
  5. Do a quick book talk on the books that students can choice from. (see attachment #1)††††††††††††††††† (7 minutes)
  6. Excuse one base groups at a time to pick their books (10 minutes)
  7. Let students work on project (35)
  8. Have students suggest title for book. (3 minutes)
  9. Vote on title. (2 minutes)

 

Accommodations: For ESL learners have them work in pairs or help them pick books that are shorter and have information they can gather from pictures.Give assistance in gathering information and writing their paper.

 

Closure: Have four or five students share their papers. (5 minutes)

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Review the papers that students created on a woman of their choice.Look for students understanding of who the woman was, what she did in her life, and an interesting fact.

 

Extension:Students who finish early may draw an illustration about the person or situation that their person was involved in.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

Attachment #1

Mother Teresa

The biography of Mother Teresa, a women that devoted her whole life to helping the poor, her church, and making every person count.

Ransom, C. (2001). Mother Teresa. Minneapolis: Carlrhoda Books Inc.

 

Harriet Tubman

The biography of Harriet Tubman, a slave who ran way to Pennsylvania to become free, was part of the Underground Railroad, helped more the 300 hundred slaves become free, and was a nurse during the Civil War.

Mara, W. (2002). Harriet Tubman. USA: Childrenís Press.

 

Marie Curie

This book is about the scientist, Marie Curie.A shy Polish woman who was denied education but never gave up.Her science achievements include: discovering the powerful element radium and the science of radioactivity.

Birch, B. (1988). Marie Curie. Milwaukee: Gareth Stevens Inc.

 

Marian Wright Edelman

This book portrays the life of Marian Wright Edelman, a woman who has fought for childrenís rights.She wants to eliminate hunger, fear, and hurt for children.

Otfinoski, S. (1991). Marian Wright Edelman. Hong Kong: Blackbirch Press.

 

Amelia Earhart.

The biography of Amelia Earhart, the first woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean.

Mara, W. (2002). Amelia Earhart. USA: Childrenís Press.

 

People Who Have Helped the World: Jane Addams.

This book portrays the life of Jane Addams, a woman that stayed true to her beliefs.Addmas worded for freedom and equality for all individuals.

Mitchard, J. (1991). People Who Have Helped the World: Jane Addams. Milwaukee: Gareth†††

Stevens Inc.

 

Sandra Day OíConnor

A book about Sandra Day OíConnor, the first women Supreme Court justice.

Hill, M. (2003). Sandra Day OíConnor. USA: Rosen Book Works Inc.

 

Learning About Fairness from the Life of Susan B. Anthony

The biography of Susan B. Anthony, a pioneer for womenís rights.

Mosher, K. (1996). Learning About Fairness from the Life of Susan B. Anthony. New York:

Rosen Publishing Group Inc.

 

The First Women in Congress: Jeanett Rankin

The biography of Jeanett Rankin, the first women in congress.

Block, J. (1978). The First Women in Congress: Jeanett Rankin. New York: Contemporary

Perspectives Inc.

 

Sally Ride

The biography of Sally Ride, the first women astronaut.

Blacknall, C. (1984). Sally Ride. Minneapolis: Dillon Press Inc.

 

A Crowell Biography Eleanor Roosevelt

The biography of Eleanor Roosevelt, a woman who helped work for justice, freedom, and helped write the Declaration of Human Rights.

Goodsell, J. (1970). A Crowell Biography Eleanor Roosevelt. Toronto: Fitzhenry & Whiteside

Limited.

 

Ruth Law Thrills a Nation

A story of a woman, Ruth Law who followed her dreams.She attempted to fly from Chicago to New York.She failed but she set a recorded for flying 590 miles nonstop.

Brown, D. (1993). Ruth Law Thrills a Nation. New York: Ticknor & Fields.

 

Women and Science

A book about six women in history who made discoveries and influenced science.

McLenighan, V. (1979). Women and Science. Milwaukee: Raintree Publishers Limited.

 

Women in Power

A book about six women in history who held political power.

McReynolds, G. (1979). Women in Power. Milwaukee: Raintree Publishers Limited.

 

Women Who Dare

A book about six women in history who follow their dreams.

McLenighan, V. (1979). Women Who Dare. Milwaukee: Raintree Publishers Limited.

 

Lesson Eight

Title of Lesson: Is This Fair?

Teachers: Diane Erickson, Lauren Sullivan, Brandy Johnson

Date:

Time Allotted: 1 hour and 45 minutes

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standard(s) Met: (see below)

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b);recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a).

 

Objectives: Given situations, the learners will read and discus situations of fairness, as a group will decide if the situation is fair or not and give reasoning, and share one situation and reasoning with the whole class, in order to show citizenship skills that benefit human kind. (State Core:4th, Standard: 4, Objective: 2)

 

Materials Needed: six situations of unfairness (see attachment #1), 36 pieces of paper, 12 pencils.Paper and pencils will be in bins and at each table before lesson begins.

 

Motivation: Ask students: Have you ever been treated unfair because you were a boy or a girl?How did it make you feel? What makes something fair or equal? (5 minutes)

 

Procedures:

  1. Explain to students that today they are going to be working in their base groups and going from table to table.At each table there is a situation that they will have to discuss with their group about if itís fair or not.There is paper provided at each table for the group to write down why they believe itís fair or why they believe itís unfair. (2 minutes)
  2. Tell the students that they will have 15 minutes at each group.When the 15 minutes are up I will flick the light and thatís your signal that itís time to move to the next group.
  3. Explain that after every group has done all six situations they will need to pick one situation they would like to share with the rest of the class.They will share what the situation was, if their group thought it was fair or unfair, and why. (2 minutes)
  4. Hand out situations to groups (see attachment 1)(3 minutes)
  5. Start student discussing situations
  6. Flick lights every 15 minutes to tell students itís time to switch (1 hr 30 minutes)

 

 

Accommodations: Have ESL learners group together and write a situation that they believe was unfair dealing with gender and explain to parent volunteer or you why it was unfair.As a group have them brainstorm some ideas or ways that the unfair situation could be made fair.

 

Closure: Have each group share what their group believed and why.

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Collect group papers and review what groups wrote.Look at answer and reasoning as to why they believe the situation was fair or unfair.

 

Extension: For groups that finish early in a situation they can write down ideas of what they would do if they were in that situation and what action/steps could be taken to make the situation fair.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Situation #1

David and Danielle Olsen are having a baby.They feel itís very important to spend as much time as they can with their baby.Right now David is working for a car dealership and Danielle is working for a small business.They were planning on Danielle taking her maternity leave right after she had the baby and then David taken his after Danielle goes back to work.That way the baby is a little bit older before it has to go to daycare.Danielleís work has given her six weeks of paid leave to have the baby.When David talked to his employer about getting paid time off he found out that men donít receive any maternity leave whatsoever.The Olsenís donít feel this is right since they are both going to be parents but they know that they have to keep their employment since they need the financial support.

 

 

Situation #2

Lexie has been an out going sports player her whole life.Ever since she was little her parents have put her in sports.Her dad has told her many time to never give up on her dreams and that she can do anything she puts her mind to.This year Lexie is going to be in high school.Ever since she was a little girl she has dreamt about playing high school football.She loves playing football, has played football for many years, and she is in hopes of getting a football scholarship so she can attend college.The thought has never crossed her mind that she couldnít play because she is a girl.When Lexie goes to sign up for tryouts she is quickly told that girls canít play football and that she would probably enjoy cheerleading a lot more then football.

 

Situation #3

The whole neighborhood is at Rachelís house playing house.Carston rides his bike up to the playhouse and asks what everyone is doing.They tell him that they are playing house and he can join them.Carston tells them that he wants to be the babysitter.Chelsie tells Carston that he canít be the babysitter he has to be a dad.Carston then tells Jamie that he doesnít want to be a dad he wants to be a babysitter.Jamie tells Carston that guys are dadís not babysitters and he has to be a dad or he canít play along.

 

Situation #4

Marci has just graduated from Illinois State in broadcasting.She has been hired on by ESPN.She is excited to have a job where she can use her degree and make a pretty good paycheck.She is in hopes of working her way up through the company so that in five years she can afford to buy a house.On her first day she met Sean, who has also just been hired by ESPN.While talking to Sean she found out that he is making 5 dollars more then she is per hour.They both have the same degree.

Situation #5

 

Braden, Dylan, and Halle are all playing in Bradenís front lawn.They are three best friends that like to do everything together.Bradenís mom tells the boys that they need to get ready for scouts itís almost time to go.They tell Halle that they have to go and that she needs to go home. Halle is confused that she has to go and canít go with them.She asks Braden and Dylan if she can come along.Braden and Dylan in unison tell Halle that scouts is for boys and she canít come along.They do boy things there and she wouldnít like it.Halle asks why and they just repeat again that scouts is for boys not for girls and she canít come along.

 

Situation #6

Mr. Karenís class is out at recess.The boys are out in the field playing kickball.Sara, a new student to the school, notices the kickball game going on and runs out to the field to join.When she gets there she asks what team she can be on.The boys tell her that she canít play she is a girl.Girls donít kick the ball as hard as boys and she should just go play hop scotch like all the other girls.Sara tells the boys that she can kick the ball and she has played many times before.

 

 

 

 

 

Lesson Nine

Title of Lesson: Introductory lesson for classroom difference: All Students are Important in Creating Our Classroom Community.

Teachers: Brandy Johnson, Diane Erickson, and Lauren Sullivan

Date:

Time Allotted: 55 min.

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standards Met: (See Below)

 

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities

(NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives: Given materials, the learners will listen to a read aloud about students learning to love and respect one another, discuss how and why they are different, and contribute to a class quilt by decorating a piece of felt that represents the student, in order to demonstrate respect for cultural differences, including the students. (Utah Core, Standard 4, Objective 1)

 

Materials Needed: 31 (get piece for teacher) pieces of felt (standard size or 7in x7in): get 5 pieces of six different colors: red, blue, green, yellow, orange, purple; 6 sets of markers, acrylic paint and puff paint for each table to share; 30 small paint brushes, paper towels, 6 cups of water for cleaning brushes, six plates for paint mixing, enough newspaper to cover each studentsí desk, the book The Rag Coat by Lauren Mills, parent volunteers to help with the activity.

 

Motivation: What does it mean to be different? Is there anybody who is exactly the same as someone else?It is okay to be different?Even though we are all different, can we still be true friends? Discuss these questions with the class. (5 min.)

 

Procedures:

  1. Do a picture walk with the book The Rag Coat and have the students make predictions. (5 min.)
  2. Read the story The Rag Coat to the children and discuss whether their predictions were correct? (5 min.)
  3. Discuss the moral of the story and tell the children that each of us is a piece or a student that makes up a whole classroom.We are all connected together.Ask the students if they have any ideas of how we can illustrate this idea. (5 min.)
  4. Tell them your idea if they do not come up with it.Tell them that today we are going to make a classroom quilt.In order for it to be complete, each student must contribute a piece of material. (1 min.)
  5. Take one of the pieces of felt and demonstrate how you would design it to represent you.Tell them to write their name on it somewhere and then decorate it.Model how to use the paints and markers and set up rules for sharing: you may only use one bottle of paint at a time, do not get paint on the marker tips or on anyone else, keep all materials on the felt fabric, model how much paint should be poured onto the plate and how to clean the paint brush between each use, you will only get one piece of fabric so please decide carefully what you want to design on it, etc.Tell the students that when they are done to carefully take their felt to the back table and leave it there to dry over night. Have them clean up their desk.Model this in sequence. (3 min.)
  6. Check for understanding by asking each student to repeat some of the directions according to your prompt. (i.e. where do you put your fabric when it is finished?) (1 min)
  7. Pass out newspaper and have students cover their desks.Pass out a different color of felt to each table, along with markers and paints, plates, cups ľ full with water, paper towels. (5 min.)
  8. Have the students begin.Rotate round the room along with parent volunteers and help the students as needed.Remind them of the directions and putting their names on their artwork. Have one parent help students put their fabric on the back table. (20 min.)

 

Accommodations: Ask parent volunteers to work with or help second language learners with directions by modeling them.Have volunteers help students manipulate paint if the students cannot do it themselves.

 

Closure: All students do an art walk and look at each otherís designs and drawings.The teacher points out the uniqueness of each one and demonstrates his/her appreciation for the students work.She tells the students she or a volunteer will take the pieces home when they are dry and sew them together.(If you do not sew then you can pin them together on a bulletin board in class.)

(5 min)

Assessment/Evaluation: Ask the students why we did this activity and have them record their answer on a piece of paper.

 

Extension: Students who finish early may write why they appreciate a fellow classmate or read a book on diversity from the unit.

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Lesson Ten

Title of Lesson: Families are Different and Important

Teachers: Brandy Johnson, Diane Erickson, and Lauren Sullivan

Date:

Time Allotted: 1hr15 min.

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and does has it affect me?

Standards Met: see below

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a)

Objectives: Given materials students will participate in six different centers where he/she will communicate with one another, create a floor plan of their bedroom, write a future family tree, tell of a tradition in their family, match student names to pictures, separate pictures of people in groups of similarities and differences, and tell of funny or embarrassing moments, in order to promote cultural understanding andgood citizenship. (Utah Core, Standard 4, Objective 1)

 

Materials Needed: Not all materials are provided and extra preparation time may be needed on the teachersí part. All materials for centers:

1)      Room Design-2 sets of small legos, #1 prompt card at end of lesson (provided);

2)      Future Family Tree-30 family tree templates (provided), 6 pencils, #2 prompt card (provided);

3)      Traditions-1 Ďtalking stickí, #3 prompt card (provided);

4)      Student Matching Game-A picture of each child from their file and their printed name cut up so that each name is matched to the picture, #4 prompt card (provided);

5)      Similar and Different-prepare 25 pictures of many different kinds of people (Black White, Asian, Mexican, Brazilian, young, old, tall, short, etc.) by finding and cutting out the pictures in magazines or do an image search on www.google.com, #5 prompt card (provided);

6)      Funny or Embarrassing Moment-30 pieces of lined paper and 6 pencils, #6 prompt card (provided);

Six plastic bins to hold each center.

 

Motivation: Show a picture of you and your family.Who is in this picture?What kind of picture is this called?Do all families look like this?Do families all have a mom and dad?How many people make up a family?Discuss questions with the students.Have them first share with a partner, then table, then call on a few to share with the class.

(3 min)

 

 

Procedure:

1.      Explain that today we are going to be working in centers that have to do with families. Have each set of materials in six separate plastic bins and go through each set with the students, explaining what they will be doing in each center.Start by reading each prompt card (see attachment 1) and then briefly model the activity. (5 min)

2.      Check for understanding about the centers and answer any questions. (1 min.)

3.      Next assign students in groups that they will work well in and have them move pick one of the studentsí table. (3 min.)

4.      Put each center on the tables and tell the children to begin.Have them spend 10-12 minutes at each center.To move the students from one center to the other, flash the lights and tell them to move clockwise around the room.Have them put the center back the way they found it before moving. (60 min.)

5.      Walk around, observe, and help students as needed.

 

Accommodations:Place ESL students with peer partners or volunteers.Before doing this activity, consider each child and determine whether this activity is appropriate, given his/her family background.You may showcase a child (Iím adopted) and teach about their importance, provide an alternate activity, or change an inappropriate center topic.

 

Closure: Have kids share which center was his/her favorite and why. (3 min.)

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Take an informal assessment of students by walking round and looking for good communication skills.Write down notes about each student using a clipboard.

 

Extension: Students who finish early should repeat the activity, doing it a different way each time.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Activity #1-Room Design

 

Divide the legos up among each student in your group.At your seat, design the floor plan of your room using the legos.When all of the students in your group are done, take turns telling about your room.Answer these questions:

  1. Do you share a room with a sibling?
  2. What is your favorite activity to do in your room?
  3. Do you like to read in your room?
  4. Is your room messy or clean right now?

5. What would you change about your room?

Activity #2-Future Family Tree

 

Do you know what a family tree is?It is a visual picture of who came first, how many children they had, and how many children their children had (Grandchildren).Today we are going to write your future family tree.Take a piece of paper and write your name where it says Ďyour nameí. What is the name of your future husband or wife?What are the names of your children?Do they have a wife or husband?What is it?Do your children have any children? What are their names?Fill this out on the sheet.

 

Activity #2b

Family Tree Template

Directions: Start by filling in your name and fill in the name of your husband or wife.Then fill in the name(s) of your child(ren) and the name(s) of their child(ren).Then answer the questions at the bottom.

 

†† ___________----- _____________

††† Your name††††††††††† wife or husband

 

Your children:

Name them: You do not need to use all of the lines provided, but turn your paper over to add more lines.

 

1.________________-------___________________

††† your childís name††††††††††††††††† wife or husband

What are their kidsí names _______________, _______________, _______________, ______________, ____________

 

2.________________-------___________________

your childís name††††††††††††††††††† wife or husband

What are their kidsí names _______________, ________________, _______________, ______________, ____________

 

3._______________-------___________________

your childís name†††††††††††††††††††† wife or husband

††††††††††† What are their kidsí names ___________, ____________, _______________, ______________, ____________

 

4.________________-------___________________

your childís name†††††††††††††††††††† wife or husband

††††††††††† What are their kidsí names _______________, ________________, _______________, ______________, ____________

 

Questions:

1)      How many people are in your family?____

2)      How many boys are in your family?_____

3)      How many girls are in your family?_____

4)      How many children do you have in your family?_____

5)      How many grandkids do you have in your family?_____

 

 

Activity #3-Traditions

 

Do you know what a tradition is? It is a story, belief or custom handed down from generation to generation.What kind of traditions do you have in your home?Using the talking stick at your table, each partner will take a turn telling about a family tradition.Are there any similarities or differences between studentsí traditions?

 

Activity #4-Student Matching Game

 

In one pile is a picture of each classmate in your class.In the other pile is the name of each student in the classroom.Can you match them up with the correct picture and name?If you do not recognize a student, get to know them!

Activity #5-Similar and Different

 

On the table there are many different pictures of people.Do you see any similarities or differences?As a group place the pictures in piles of similarities.As each student places a picture in a pile they must tell the group what the similarities are.

 

Activity #6 Funny or Embarrassing Stories

 

Do you or your family have any funny or embarrassing moments?What are they?Take a piece of paper and write about a funny or embarrassing moment that happened to you or your family.You may share with the group if you want but you do not have to share this time.

 

Lesson Eleven

Title of Lesson: Math and Me

Teachers: Brandy Johnson, Diane Erickson, and Lauren Sullivan

Date:

Time Allotted: 30 min.

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 35 min.

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standards Met: see below

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a)

Objectives: Given materials the students will participate in answering questions about themselves on squares of paper and contributing that information to a chart that demonstrates the class statistics, in order to show appreciation for other cultures, including the studentsí differences. (Utah Core, Standard 4, Objective 1)

 

Materials Needed: 300 2in x 2in squares or post-it notes, question sheet for teacher (attachment #1), 30 markers, 5 pieces of colored paper cut in half for labeling, a large, empty wall to display the bar graph.Prepare each label by writing the questions on the half sheets of paper.Shorten questions if necessary.††

 

Motivation: This week we have been talking about how people have different cultures and different families.Today we are going to chart the thing we have in common and our differences.Putting it on a chart will help us answer these questions:I wonder how many people have a cat, or dogÖI wonder how many people like cereal for breakfastÖ and other questions. (5 min.)

 

Procedures:

1)      Ahead of time, make a giant bar graph on a wall in your classroom.Do this by placing the label questions on the bottom with, and labeling the side with numbers 1-30 so it counts each square as they are added. (do this ahead of time)

2)      Pass out 50 squares to each table and watch for when they run out. (1 min.)

3)      Model the first question by reading it aloud and answering it.Point out that you are writing the answer and your name on one side.Place it on the chart in the correct column.(5min.)

4)      Read each question and instruct the students to write their answers on a square.Then call them up by tables to put their squares in the correct column.An example would be: teacher reads the question Ďdo you have a catí and tells the students to write yes or no and their name on a square.Then she calls each table up and the students make two columns under the question table on the graph, yes or no.(15 min.)

5)      After all questions have been read through discuss the graph and count how many cats or dogs people have at home.(5 min.)

 

Accommodations: Provide pictures for ESL students then demonstrate the question.

 

Closure: Discuss that our classroom has many similarities and differences.Have the studentsí site examples. ( 3 min.)

 

 

Assessment/Evaluation:Have each student pick another student and find one similarity and one difference between the two using the chart. They can do this in a think-pair-share group.

 

Extension: Students can add new questions to the graph.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?

 

Attachment #1

Directions: Read the question to the students and have them write the answer accordingly.After each question, place the labeled questions on the bottom of the graph with and have the students come up place their answer where it belongs.

Questions

1)      Do you have a cat? Write yes or no and your name.

2)      Do you have a dog? Write yes or no and your name.

3)      Do you like hot or cold weather?Write hot or cold and your name.

4)      Do you sing in the shower? Write yes or not and your name.

5)      Did you eat breakfast this morning?Write yes or no and your name.

6)      Do you have any siblings or are you an only child?Write siblings or only child and your name.

7)      What color are your eyes? Write the color and your name.

8)      What color is your hair?Write the color and your name.

9)      What is your favorite subject in school, math, reading, writing, science or history? Write your favorite subject and your name.

10)  Have you lived in Logan all of your life? Write yes or no and your name.

Lesson Twelve

Title of Lesson: Final project, The Commercial

Teachers: Brandy Johnson, Diane Erickson, and Lauren Sullivan

Date:

Time Allotted: 50 min.

Grade Level: 4th

Number of Learners: 30

 

Unit Theme: What is equality and how does it affect me?

Standards Met: see below

Goal: The learners will be able to identify examples of rights and responsibilities (NCSS 10b); recognize and give examples of the tensions between the wants and needs of individuals and groups, and concepts such as fairness, equity, and justice (NCSS 6h); examine the rights and responsibilities of the individual in relations to his or her social group, such as family, peer group, and school class. (NCSS 6a)

 

Objectives: Given materials the students will watch public service announcements and participate in a discussion about issues in their community and school, create a commercial on a decided issue and present it to the class and school, in order to demonstrate basic citizenship and identify ways to help and contribute to the community. (Utah Core, Standard 4, Objective 2)

 

Materials: Record a few public service announcements off of TV.Try to get different topics of commercials, 12 Brainstorm sheets (includes extras-attachment #1), 12 Commercial Format Sheets (attachment #2),30 Student Evaluation Sheets (attachment #3), 12 pencils, overhead of Commercial Format Sheet so the teacher can model the procedure.

 

Motivation: Show the students the commercials and ask what the students think it would take to make a commercial.List it on the board. Remind them of the unit topic they have been learning about and review what diversity means.How should we treat each other?Is there anything that is unfair here at school or in the community?Are we nice to each other out on the playground, in the halls or in your neighborhood?What about at lunch?I want you to think of something that is discriminatory towards someone or a group of people here at our school or in our community.Think of some good behavior that you want to promote in our school and community. (7 min)

 

Procedures:

1)      Tell the students that we will be making our own commercial in groups today.First we will brainstorm some ideas, get them approved and then fill out a Commercial Format Sheet (attachment #2).After the commercial is all planned out and approved by me, you will be dismissed to practice your commercial in a quiet spot. Once your commercial is perfected, I will watch it for approval.Then tonight we will go home and gather any props we will need and come back tomorrow to record the commercials.Then we will watch them and maybe send them to other classes for viewing. (1min.)

2)      Have the students get into groups and pass out the Brainstorm Sheet (attachment #1).Tell them to designate someone to be the recorder.Have them list their ideas on the paper and raise their hands when they have at least 5 ideas.Come around and approve ideas that could potentially become a commercial. (5 min)

3)      Once the ideas have been approved, each group chooses one issue and shares it out with the group. Make sure no two groups have the same idea. (2 min.)

4)      Take out the Commercial Format Sheet (attachment #2) overhead and model how to use it.Make up an issue and think aloud as you answer the questions.Solicit help from the students as you write your commercial. Leave your example up on the screen so the students can refer back to it. (7 min.)

5)      Pass out the Commercial Format Sheet (attachment #2) and have each group appoint a new recorder to read and write down each answer and idea. (15 min.)

6)      Once they are finished with their idea and they know what the commercial will look like, they can raise their hands for approval.Then they can be dismissed to go into a corner or out in the hall to practice their commercial.Tell them we will worry about props later if they are not accessible. (10 min.)

7)      Watch each studentsí commercial and approve it.Then tell them to bring any props needed tomorrow for the recording.

Accommodations: Have ESL students work with a peer partner and make sure they are given a part in the commercial.Solicit ideas about diversity from them during whole class instruction.Provide printed worksheets in their native language.

 

Closure: Pull the kids back into groups and ask them what was the hardest part about writing their commercial?Was it easy or harder to work in groups?Why? (3 min.)

 

Assessment/Evaluation: Pass out a Student Evaluation Sheet (attachment #3) and have the students evaluate each other.Remind them to be honest and tell them that only the teacher will see the evaluations.Pass out a Self Reflection Sheet (see attachment #4) and have the students reflect on how their ideas have changed about equality over the course of the unit.

 

Extension: Groups that finish early can begin to gather props or write dialog lines as necessary.They can also draw pictures of how they want the commercial to appear.

 

Teacher Reflection: What will I change next year?What went really well this time?


Attachment #1

Brainstorm Sheet

What are some good behaviors that you want to promote?How do you want people to act towards each other?What are some bad behaviors you have seen at school or in the community?List some ideas

Attachment #2

Commercial Format Sheet

 

Directions: Think of an issue that is unfair in your school or community and design a commercial that will raise awareness to the school and community.

 

What is the issue you want to present? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Write down the message you want people to get from watching your commercial?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

Describe what your commercial will look like in detail.Read though these questions with your group first and discuss them.How many people will be in your commercial?Will there be any role-play?What props will you need?How long is a typical commercial?Will your commercial be too long or too short?Will it be confusing?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 
Attachment #3
Student Evaluation Sheet

 

Your Name__________________________________Date_____________________

 

List the names of students in your group and rate their participation accordingly.Then rate yourself.

 

1.________________________†† (Very Good)††† (Good)††† (Poor)

††††††††† Student Name††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† circle one

Why did you give this partner this rating?______________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

2.________________________†† (Very Good)††† (Good)††† (Poor)

††††††††† Student Name††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† circle one

Why did you give this partner this rating?______________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

3.________________________†† (Very Good)††† (Good)††† (Poor)

††††††††† Student Name††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† circle one

Why did you give this partner this rating?______________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

4.________________________†† (Very Good)††† (Good)††† (Poor)

††††††††† Student Name††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† circle one

Why did you give this partner this rating?______________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

NOW RATE YOURSELF

 

5.________________________†† (Very Good)††† (Good)††† (Poor)

††††††††† Your Name††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† circle one

Why did you give YOURSELF this rating?_____________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

 

Attachment #4

Self Reflection Sheet

  1. What did you think equality was at the beginning of the unit?

 

 

 

 

  1. How do you feel about equality now?

 

 

 

 

  1. How have your ideas about equality changed over the course of the unit?

 

 

 

 

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

Assessment

 

Our unit on equality has many forms of activities and authentic assessments.ďGood assessment should be thought of as a photo album rather than a snapshot.We should use different pictures and different lenses to get at different aspects of learning over timeĒ (Lindquist pg. 194).Our assessments range from personal reflection, focusing on the studentsí information and feelings about the activity, portfolio work, and note taking and observations, mainly focusing on students understanding of the concepts being taught and their participation in group work.Each assessment was designed to meet the goals of the NCSS and the Utah State Core Standards.Each student will have a working portfolio that will contain projects that they have done over the course of the unit.They will be required to think and then write about equality in the classroom, their personal dreams, and how they can make a world a more peaceful place.This portfolio will be something that they can look at and remember what they learned from the unit and how their views of equality have changed. The final project in this unit is a commercial about equality generated by the students.This final project will help assess how students will help their community by having them write public service announcements.Another assessment for this project will give the students an opportunity to assess themselves and their classmates by assessing their peersí participation and the participation of themselves.The students will also reflect on their initial ideas about equality and how they have changed over the course of the unit. This gives the students a chance to reflect on their own learning and the learning of those they work with. We feel that personal refection is important for not only the students but also the teachers.Upon the conclusion of this unit please take the time to assess you own teaching and the unit on equality.Think and document on each lesson plan: what you would change in this lesson for next year and what worked well in this lesson.Observe and note what concepts in the unit need further detail and instruction.Also note the interests students have in the unit and other topics that could be added to deepen their understanding in equality, culture and citizenship skills.Our main goal in having the teacher reflect and self assess is to help improve this unit on equality and make it work for your classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendices

References

Barton, K. and Levstik, L. (2001). Doing History. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.

 

Gale. (1997) The African American Almanac. 7th ed.

 

Lindquist, T. (2002). Seeing the Whole Through Social Studies. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

 

Childrenís Literature Resources

Mckissack, P. (2001). Goiní Someplace Special. Simon & Schuster Children's.

 

Mills, L. (1991). The Rag Coat. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.

 

Wiles, D. (2001). Freedom Summer. Simon & Schuster Children's.

 

Woodson, J.(2001). The Other Side. Putnam Juvenile.

 

Internet Resources

Eisenberg, B and Ruthsdotter, M. (1998). A "Declaration of Sentiments" is Drafted. Retrieved

September 29, 2003 from http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

 

Elizabeth Cady Stanton. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

Hemping, C (2000). A Personal Timeline.Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.snowcrest.net/mhemping/TIMELINE.html

 

King, M.L.(1963). I Have a Dream. Retrieved October 7, 2003, from ††††††††††† http://teacherlink.ed.usu.edu/tlresources/multimedia/IHaveADream.mp3

 

Lucretia Mott. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

Nemeth, D. (2000). 19 Amendment. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http: campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/USA/19Amend.html

 

Nichols, J. (2003). Martin Luther King in the classroom. ďA poem for Choral ReadingĒ.

Retrieved on October 6, 2003, from http://www.proteacher.com/cgi-bin/outsidesite.cgi?external=http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/1465/mlk2.html&original=http://www.proteacher.com/090159.shtml&title=Martin%20Luther%20King%20in%20the%20Classroom

 

RHL school. (1996). Martin Luther King Jr. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from †††††††† www.rhlschool.com

 

Smithsonian, I. (2000). The Seneca Falls Convention. Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:www.npg.si.edu/col/seneca/senfalls1.htm

Susan B. Anthony. (2003). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http:womenhistory.about.com/library/bio/blanthony.htm

 

Technology. (2003). If You Had a Dream. Retrieved October 6, 2003, from http://www.tech-††††††††††† nology.com/worksheets/misc/mlk/if/

 

The Constitution: The 19th Amendment. (n.d). Retrieved September 29, 2003, from

http: www.nara.gov/exhall/charters/constitution/19th/19th.html

 

Windmill and Works. (2003). I Have a Dream. Retrieved October 7, 2003, from

††††††††††† http://www.windmillworks.com/games/dream.htm

 

Women's Fight for the Vote: The Nineteenth Amendment. (n.d). Retrieved September 29,

2003 from http:www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm