Who was affected by North American Colonization and How?

A 5th grade unit on the settlement of North America

by Allison Stokes

Table of Contents

Overview and Rationale

Teacher Background Information

Unit Planning Chart

Organization and Subject Matter Overview with Goals and Objectives

Learning Activities Bank

The Salem Witch Trials

Native American Life

John Smith and Pocahantus

The Mayflower Compact

Assessment

Appendices

Overview and Rationale

This unit, "Who was affected by North American Colonization and How?" designed for a fifth grade classroom, examines the motivations, attitudes, individuals, and circumstances involved in the colonization of what is now the United States, as well as the effects of that colonization on peoples of the past and present. I believe that history should not be taught in a vacuum, but rather, all of the social studies disciplines should be integrated with each other, as well with all subjects, in order for students to develop an accurate and analytical eye of the world in which they live. It should also be taught in the context of student's lives. The teacher should often step back and ask "what does this mean for me?"

The Utah Core Curriculum for fifth grade calls for students to "examine the impact of people and places on the emergence of United States culture and history," while the National Council for the Social Studies calls for powerful teaching that is meaningful and active. The National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Standards also suggest the study of history, how things change over time, and what influences those changes. Many of the issues addressed in colonial times are still issues today and affect the lives of many fifth grade students, such as living with people who are different, working together to build a community and accomplish a common goal, religion, and power issues, as well as customs and beliefs that remain today. By examining these issues from a distance created by time, students can learn to think rationally and critical about them, and then apply those same skills to the present and planning for the future. I believe that, while historical investigation and learning may be focused on that time period, students should always understand how certain topics apply to their own world. Thus, social studies teaching will be meaningful.

Fifth graders are beginning to see different perspectives in new situations. They should also be developing appropriate argumentation and disagreement skills. Therefore, these students should be encouraged to see and debate different viewpoints while critically analyzing various data. This being somewhat new to many, this should take place with much teacher and peer guidance and support. In this study of Colonial America, students will be given many opportunities to discuss, debate, and argue important historical issues.

Teacher Background Information

Prior to European exploration and discovery, many Native American tribes had settled and farmed along the Eastern coast of what is now the United States. Each tribe was as different as each country in Europe. Their life changed drastically as Europeans introduced new weapons, diseases, and beliefs, as well as competition for food and other natural resources. When colonists arrived in Virginia, they settled in the territory of a strong Indian empire or chiefdom. The chief ruler of this Algonquin Nation, made up of 30 tribes, was Powhatan. Powhatan was not friendly to the colonists, but his daughter, Pocahantus, was. According to John Smith, governor of the Jamestown colony, Powhatan attempted to kill Smith, but Pocahantus put herself between his head and her father's stone club. Pocahantus and Smith became friends and Pocahantus often visited the English colony and brought gifts. She was later baptized, married John Smith, and traveled with him back to England.

Jamestown, Virginia was the first English colony in the New World. It's location on the James River provided a warm climate and fertile soil. It was organized chiefly as an economic venture, first attempting to find gold, but later focusing on tobacco, which thrived on the large plantations, although the colony never succeeded until the company was sold some years later. Most settlers in Jamestown did not plan on settling permanently in the New World, and few women or children were found in the colony. Many were indentured servants who had agreed to work for their master as a servant for a certain number of years, in exchange for passage to the New World and a plot of land upon completion. Most of the colonists in Jamestown were Anglican, and colony laws required regular prayer and church attendance. King James I originally appointed seven men to govern the colony as a council. A representative system of government continued thereafter.

Plymouth, Massachusetts was settled 13 years later by a small group of Puritans. Puritanism, or the congregational church, began as a number of theologists began to argue the validity of the Church of England as it passed from the power of conservative and liberal magistrates. Both the Puritans and Separatists did not agree with many of the Anglican church's teachings. The Separatists simply separated themselves from the nation's church (and often, the nation), while Puritans hoped to reform the existing Church of England to teach what they felt to be pure truths from the Bible. The Puritans believed that through Adam's fall, every human is born sinful, regardless of person action (Original Sin), and that only a selected few will be saved by grace. All salvation is predestined, and no action can change one's fate. God allows grace to those he has chosen. The elected have power to interpret the will of God and live accordingly. If anyone rejects grace after feeling its power in his life, he will be going against the will of God, which is impossible. The Puritans believed they were God's chosen people, and tried to live their lives in an exemplary manner.

The Puritans were persecuted for their beliefs in England, and so they went to Holland for a time, but did not like the Dutch influence on their children and always wanted to maintain their English heritage. It was mainly for this reason that they sailed to the New World where they could worship as they pleased and raise their children in an English society. Before arriving, they all signed the Mayflower Compact, their governing document, in which they covenanted to unity and obedience. The Puritans settled further North than they had planned, in Massachusetts. The climate was cold and the soil rocky, which limited farm size. New Englanders turned to industries such as shipbuilding, lumbering, fishing and trade to gain profit, while they maintained their small farms for subsistence.

The majority of New England Natives had died from a smallpox epidemic previous to the Pilgrims arrival. Those remaining were friendly to the Europeans and helped them to survive for several years.

Roger Williams was a minister in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who believed in and taught religious freedom and Indian rights. He was banished from the Colony for spreading "new authority of magistrates." After living with the Narragansetts for a short time, they granted him the land which he settled and named Providence. A few years later, Anne Hutchinson, another exile from Massachusetts, settled nearby. Hutchinson had stopped attending community religious services regularly. She also claimed to receive visits from angels and held religious gatherings in her home without the consent of church or government officials. Hutchinson was followed by many settlers who were attracted to the colony because of its offer of complete religious freedom. Rhode Island policies were even so broad as to allow freedom to Jewish and any other non-Christian belief.

The other colonies were settled for similar reasons, mostly a combination of religious and economic. Pennsylvania was a haven for pacifist Quakers were nearly all believers were welcome, Maryland for Catholics, and Georgia began as a penal colony. Other colonies passed through through many nations before settling under the rule of the English.

In 1692, in the Massachusetts community of Salem, a few young girls began to act strangely. The doctor could find nothing physically wrong with them, and proposed they must be suffering from the effects of a witch. The girls finally accused Tituba, a servant, who eventually confessed of witchcraft. The girls and others began to accuse others of witchcraft. The accused were advised to confess their sins to save their soul. If they continued to deny it, the accusers would go into fits and make stronger accusations. Those who confessed generally set free, while those who denied it were hung. All those accused and tried were found guilty.

Unit Planning Chart

Social Studies

Read Alouds

Student Reading/Literature

Colonial America history, religion, government and politics, geography and maps

On the Mayflower: Voyage of the Shop's Apprentice & a Passenger Girl by Kate Waters

Samuel Eaton's Day: A Day in the Life of a Pilgrim Boy by Kate Waters

Tapenum's Day: a Wampanoag Indian Boy in Pilgrim Times by Kate Waters

The Double Life of Pocahantus by Jean Fritz

Who's That Stepping on Plymouth Rock? by Jean Fritz

Charlie's House by Clyde Robert Bulla

Math

Science

Art

Voyage costs, Economic gains in different colonies

Navigation compass and Earth's magnetic field, Smallpox infection and immunizations

Discuss "Paul Revere, John Hancock, Massasoit, and Sacajawea" by Cyrus E. Dallin, Create exploration drawings, similar to those of early settlers

Physical Education

Music

Technology

17th century dances, Native American dances, Gold hunt game

Listen to classical music from 17th century, Native American instruments

Discuss inventions from the colonies, Internet research and "virtual" visits

Oral Language

Written Language

Culminating Activity/ Unit Projects

Mock Trial, Class and group discussions and debates, oral/ visual presentation of final projects

Write newspaper articles from different colonies, Write historical fiction

Design a colony, colonial journals

Teacher Resources

Field Trips/Guests

Primary documents found at the following site: http://personal.pitnet.net/primarysources/

history museum, professional historian or reenactor

Organization and Subject Matter Overview with Goals and Objectives

This unit, "Who was affected by North American Colonization and how?" examines the development of the original thirteen colonies, with a special focus on the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies. It is designed for a 5th grade classroom where Social Studies is taught for 60 minutes per day, four days per week, as well as integrated into all other subjects. The overall goals for this five week unit are that students will develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (NCSS IIe) and describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings (NCSS IIIi). Each lesson is designed to support these goals by filling one of the following objectives from the Utah State Social Studies core curriculum: generate reasons for settlement in the New World (Objective 1.1), analyze the role of American Indians, explorers, and leaders in the development of the New World (Objective 4.1), analyze how physical features affected the expansion of North America (Objective 9.1), and use maps to identify the development of the New World and the United States (Objective 9.2).

The first day of the unit is spent tying the past to the present by comparing issues discussed in Colonial times to issues still discussed today. The first two weeks are spent focusing on the Jamestown colony, each day studying a different topic in relation to that colony. The next two week and a half are spent focusing on the Northern colonies, and new issues are studied that were prevalent in those communities. The final week and a half are spent comparing and contrasting the colonies, focusing on map skills, and preparing final projects for presentation.

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Day 1

Intro activity, a look at modern laws and philosophies that were issues during colonial times. With a partner, students fill out "now and then" sheet comparing values and positions on given topics then and now. (Objective 1.1)

Economy, in groups, students propose a way for their colonial company to fund their trip and earn a profit, using a multiple choice system. When economies are settled, teacher adds taxes, and unexpected conditions to their endeavor. (Objectives 1.1, 9.1)

Religion: Catholics, Anglicans, Puritans, and Separatists. Students compare and contrast the different religions and write period journal entries responding to different theological views. (Objectives 1.1, 4.1)

Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson lecture/discussion using 10-2 strategy and write in colonial journals(Objective 4.1)

Colonial Governments, Explore and discuss different forms of government. Plan government and laws for colony project. (Objective 1.1)

Day 2

Why colonize? Students explore and discuss reasons for colonization and draft their own charter to explain why they are forming their colony and what their intentions are.(Objective 1.1)

Leaders, indentured servitude, and slavery, students research one colonial leader and one servant, write biography poems to compare and contrast their lives. (Objective 4.1)

Mayflower Compact, each student drafts his/her own ideas for a classroom compact, discuss ideas as a class to form a classroom compact to which each class member agrees. (Objective 4.1)

Rhode Island and Religious Freedom formal debate (Objective 1.1)

Comparing and contrasting the colonies, Day 1--Religion and Native Americans mini-lesson, time to work on final projects and presentations (Objective 1.1, 9.2)

Day 3

Native American life, students view and analyze different drawings and photos from different sources, and draw their own interpretation. (Objective 4.1)

Jamestown mapping activity, students study early maps and mapmaking processes, make their own map of a new environment. (Objective 9.2)

Physical features and climate of Massachusetts (Objective 9.1)

Salem Witch Trials, Mock Trial (Objective 4.1)

Comparing and contrasting the colonies Day 2--Climate and economy mini lesson, time to work on final projects and presentations (Objective 9.2)

Day 4

John Smith & Pocahantus, KWL, in groups, students answer their own questions given books to research. (Objective 4.1)

Jamestown, putting it together, each student chooses a topic that may have been news in Colonial Jamestown and write a newspaper article, cartoon, or advertisement about the event. Paste them together to make a newspaper. (Objective 1.1)

Life in the Plymouth Colony, students spend the time experiencing Puritan culture, foods, costume, and etiquette (Objective 1.1)

Pennsylvania and Maryland, examine various maps of the colonies ID similarities, differences, and patterns in religion, economics, physical features, government, nationalities, population etc. (Objectives 9.2 )

Final Project Presentations

To facilitate cooperative learning and encourage student discussion, students should be seated together in groups of four or five. Research and art materials should be readily available. There should also be a separate table away from the group for conferencing during quiet work or quiet "thinking" time during designated talking times.

classroom plan

 

Learning Activities Bank

The Salem Witch Trials

Title of Lesson: The Salem Witch Trials

Teachers: Allison Stokes

Date: Oct. 14, 2003

Time Allotted: 60 min.

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 28

Unit Theme: Who was affected by North American Colonization and how?

Standard Met: (see below)

Goal: Students will be able to develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (NCSS 2e); describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings (NCSS 3i).

Objectives: Learners will participate in the mock trial of a Salem resident who has been accused of witchcraft in order to analyze the role of leaders in the development of the New World (Utah Standard 4 Objective 1).

Materials Needed: A witch. (If you cannot find a real witch, you may use a picture or drawing or other physical or visual representation.(Optional))

Motivation: What is a witch? What does a witch look like? How would you know if you found one? Class discussion.(5 min.)

Procedures:

1. Review Puritan culture and religion. Specifically discuss their beliefs of God and the devil (3 min).

2. Tell students about the beginning of witch trials. In 1692, a few of the daughters of prominent men in Salem began to act strangely. They often talked to Tituba, a slave, and she told their fortunes and told them ghost stories. The prominent men of the village decided the girls' fits must be caused by the power of a witch. Soon other girls began to have similar fits and many people were accused of witchcraft. (3 min.)

3. Assign a few students different roles and give them the written description of their character.

4. Introduce the class to Martha Cory, a respected churchgoer accused of witchcraft. (You may wish to display a drawing or some other visual representation of Martha.) (2 min.)

5. Review rules for debate and ask accusers and witnesses to present their arguments. All students then participate in a mock trial, with the teacher acting as judge. The judge and Reverend Parris should use scare tactics and poor logic to lead the class to a guilty verdict. (35 min.)

Accommodations: This activity may be described and explained to special needs students beforehand so they can have time to think of and possibly write down responses and comments they would like to make.

Closure: Ask the class to step out of their Puritan roles and tell if they really think that Martha was a witch. Why do you believe that? Then why was she found guilty? A few students share their feelings. (5 min.)

Assessment/Evaluation: As the class debates and discusses, keep track on a class role how many comments each student contributes, and how many of those are historically accurate.

Extension: Write a historical fiction about someone in Salem during this time.

Teacher Reflection:

Native American Life

Title of Lesson: Native American Life

Teacher: Allison Stokes

Date: Oct. 16, 2003

Time Allotted: 60 min.

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 28

Unit Theme: Who was affected by North American colonization and how?

Standard Met: (see below)

Goal: Learners will be able to develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (NCSS 2e); describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings (NCSS 3i).

Objectives: Given various pictures of Native Americans and art supplies, the learners will examine, discuss, and create pictures depicting Native American life, in order to analyze the role of American Indians, explorers, and leaders in the development of the New World (Utah Standard 4 Objective 1).

Materials Needed: Various pictures of Native Americans as drawn by themselves, Europeans, and historians which depict different aspects of Native American life, for example, hunting, farming, fishing, dancing, eating, and native dress. Some pictures can be found at the following sites:http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/catlin/highlights.html http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/plains/index.html#4 http://www.historylink101.com/1/native_american/native_american_pictures.htm The more pictures you can get, the better (no fewer than 10)

Each picture should be labeled with who drew that picture (a Native, European, or Historian)..

Art supplies--paints, markers, pencils, white paper.

Motivation: Hand out drawings. Tell students to look at the drawings and tell what they see. What do you like? What does it remind you of? Students share a few pictures and thoughts.(5 min.)

Procedures:

1. As a class, discuss the influence of Native Americans on European settlement. If you were a Native American, what would you think when the Europeans first came? If you were a European settler, what would you want to know from the Native Americans? (10 min.)

2. Explain that Native American life in the 16th century was very different from European life.

3. Display one drawing that the students do not have so that the whole class can see. What might be happening in this picture? If you were a European and you saw something like this, what would you think? What stands out? Do you think it is an accurate portrayal? What do we learn about Native Americans from this drawing? (5 min.)

4. With a partner, have students examine several drawings and fill out this form. (20 min.)

5. Students choose one thing they learned about Native Americans, and draw a picture of it, similar to the drawings they examined (but don't copy). (15 min.)

6. Clean up (3 min.)

Accommodations: Teacher or classroom aid walks through filling out the form with learning disabled students. Read questions out loud, student responds verbally, then writes it down with assistance as needed.

Closure: Ask a few students share their artwork. (2 min.)

Assessment/Evaluation: As students are working, ask them to describe their drawings, and check for historical accuracy. Drawings go into student's unit folders with the option of entering their final portfolio.

Extension: Write a story about what is taking place in your drawing.

Teacher Reflection:

John Smith & Pocahantus

Title of Lesson: John Smith & Pocahantus

Teacher: Allison Stokes

Date: Oct. 16, 2003

Time Allotted: 60 min.

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 28

Unit Theme: Who was affected by North American colonization and how?

Standard Met: (see below)

Goal: Learners will be able to develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (NCSS 2e); describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings (NCSS 3i).

Objective: Given books and articles concerning the life of Captain John Smith and Pocahantus, learners will generate and answer questions about them, in order to analyze the role of American Indians, and leaders in the development of the New World (Utah Standard 4 Objective 1)

Materials Needed: Books and articles concerning the life of Captain John Smith and Pocahantus, pictures of John Smith and Pocahantus, paper, and pencils.

Motivation: Hang pictures of Smith and Pocahantus and label them. Ask the class how many have heard of either one of them. Ask a volunteer to quickly tell the class who they were (for example, John Smith was one of the first white people to live in America, and Pocahantus was an American Indian.) You may want to point out that the Walt Disney movie "Pocahantus," is not very accurate. (5 min.)

Procedures:

1. Ask students to take out a piece of paper and write down everything they know about John Smith and Pocahantus (2 min.)

2. Have students share what they thought of with a partner, one at a time (2 min.)

3. Students make a list of questions they have about John Smith and Pocahantus, or what they want to know. (3 min.)

4. Students share their question with their partner (3 min.)

5. Each student chooses 3 questions s/he would like to research and answer.

6. Students research the answers to their questions in books and articles provided, also recording other interesting things they learned (35 min.) Students should answer 3 of their questions and find at least two extra interesting facts.

7. Students return to their seats. The teacher then shares two interesting facts s/he has learned about John Smith & Pocahantus (2 min.) (This may be a good time to point out that Pocahantus did not marry John Smith, but did marry John Rolfe.)

8. With a partner, students share the three most interesting things they learned (4 min.)

Accommodations: Easy reading and/or picture book should be available for learning disabled students. The assignment can also be shortened to gathering fewer facts.

Closure: A few students share with the whole class the most interesting thing they learned. (5 min.)

Assessment/Evaluation: Students add KWL chart to their unit folder. Check Learned section for at least 5 accurate facts.

Extension: Create a timeline of the life of John Smith and/or Pocahantus.

Teacher Reflection:

The Mayflower Compact

Title of Lesson: The Mayflower Compact (this lesson has been adapted from a lesson by Anne Michelle L. Brown)

Teacher: Allison Stokes

Date: Oct. 16, 2003

Time Allotted: 60 min.

Grade Level: 5

Number of Learners: 28

Unit Theme: Who was affected by North American colonization and how?

Standard Met: (see below)

Goal: Learners will be able to develop critical sensitivities such as empathy and skepticism regarding attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in different historical contexts (NCSS 2e); describe ways that historical events have been influenced by, and have influenced, physical and human geographic factors in local, regional, national, and global settings (NCSS 3i).

Objective: Given a copy of the Mayflower Compact and a copy of classroom rules, students will discuss how good of a governing document the Mayflower Compact is and draft their own version of the compact in order to analyze the role of leaders in the development of the New World

Materials Needed: A copy of "The Mayflower Compact", a copy of classroom rules

Motivation: Review classroom rules. Discuss why they work and why they are important (5 min.)

Procedures:

1. Tell the students that as the Pilgrims sailed to America on the Mayflower, they knew they needed some rules that everybody agreed to. Why would they do that? (3 min.)

2. Present and read aloud The Mayflower Compact .

3. Guide students through interpreting the document by picking out the important parts of each sentence and translating into modern speech. (5 min.)

4. In groups of two or three, have students share if they think the Mayflower Compact is a "good" governing document or not (Do the people know how to act in a new and different situation? Would you like to live by these rules?) (10 min.)

5. Have a few groups share what they decided.(3 min.)

6. Discuss as a class. Does it seem to be missing something? What are their rules? Who is in charge? What about building schools and churches? What happens if someone is not "Submissive and Obedient"? What would happen if our laws were written like this? (10 min.)

7. As a class, brainstorm rules and policies that should have been included in the Mayflower Compact.(7 min.)

8. Individually, have each student take a few ideas from the list, or others they've thought of on their own, and draft their own Mayflower Compact.(15 min.)

Accommodations: Provide a translated or simplified copy of the Mayflower Compact for special needs students and English language learners. Instead of drafting their own Mayflower Compact, they may answer a few simple questions about the document.

Closure: As students are finishing up, post classroom rules. Have students think about their rules and decide if they still think they are good rules. If they would like to add or change a rule, have them write it down and bring it up during the next class meeting (3 min.)

Assessment/Evaluation: Drafts will go into students folders. Check assignment for completion.

Extension: Write a letter to a Pilgrim presenting your new version of the Mayflower Compact explaining what improvements you've made.

Teacher Reflection:

Assessment

All student artwork and writing will be kept in a unit folder. Each piece will be evaluated for completion, historical accuracy, and evidence of understanding of the principles being taught in that particular lesson. If no evidence is found, the teacher should ask the student to describe his/her work for clarification. Students will choose some of their best work to put in their final portfolio for the term.

I also suggest during class and group discussions, the teacher choose two students to observe. S/he should keep track of how many comments are made during whole class discussions, and what type they tend to be (questions,taking a position and which one, etc.). During group work, the teacher should listen more carefully for short periods of time in order to note direct quotes and the general understanding and opinion of the student. Near the end or directly after the lesson, the teacher writes a short summary of what s/he heard from those students to reflect that student's understanding and feelings on the subject, including student quotes. Each student will be observed at least once, and possibly twice during the five week unit.

Student's final projects and presentations will be evaluated using a rubric. Each group will also write a summary of which each group member contributed to the project.

Appendices

Some pictures for Native American Life lesson can be found at:

http://www.tribalarts.com/feature/plains/index.html#4

http://americanart.si.edu/collections/exhibits/catlin/highlights.html

http://www.historylink101.com/1/native_american/native_american_pictures.htm

Questions for Native American Life lesson:

Who drew this picture?

What is happening in this picture?

What stands out to you?

What can we learn about Native Americans from this drawing?

Do you think it is accurate?

John Smith & Pocahantus resources:

 http://www.suhsd.k12.ca.us/mvm/netlinks/1pocahontas/pocahantus.html

The Double Life of Pocahantus, by Jean Fritz

http://www.apva.org/history/jsmith.html

http://members.aol.com/mayflo1620/pocahontas.html

http://www.jamestowne.org/history/johns.htm

http://www.apva.org/history/pocahont.html

http://www.powhatan.org/pocc.html

http://members.tripod.com/~AlanCheshire/index-24.html

 Roles for Salem Witch Mock Trial:

Ann Putnam: Accuser, a young girl plagued by fits. Movement or looks from Martha send you into a fit. You begin to scream or twitch. You tell the people it is Martha's doing.

Abigail Williams: Accuser, a young girl plagued by fits. Movement or looks from Martha send you into a fit. You begin to scream or twitch. You tell the people it is Martha's doing.

Abigail Hobbs: Witness and confessed witch. You claim to have seen Martha eating red blood at the devil's sacrament.

Reverend Samuel Parris: Minister at Salem Village, many of the main accusers are your relatives and supporters, and it is your responsibility to protect your congregation from the influence of the devil and encourage witches to confess their sins and ask forgiveness.

Neighbor: A witness. You have known Martha for a long time and she has always been a very good Christian. She is one of the few allowed to take communion.

Neighbor: A witness.You have known Martha for a long time. She has always been very kind and of good Christian character.

Friend: A witness.Martha has always been willing to help those in need and always trying to live the law according to the Bible.

Neighbor: A witness. You know Martha was always honest in her dealings and good to her family, friends, and all who knew her.