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Africa :: Zambia
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Zambia
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Zambia
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Introduction ::Zambia
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The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched an anticorruption investigation in 2002 to probe high-level corruption during the previous administration. In 2006-07, this task force successfully prosecuted four cases, including a landmark civil case in the UK in which former President CHILUBA and numerous others were found liable for USD 41 million. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his abrupt death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his Vice-president Rupiah BANDA, who subsequently won a special presidential election in October 2008.
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Geography ::Zambia
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Southern Africa, east of Angola
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15 00 S, 30 00 E
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total: 752,618 sq km
country comparison to the world: 39
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km
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slightly larger than Texas
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total: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
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mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
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lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
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copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
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arable land: 6.99%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 92.97% (2005)
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1,560 sq km (2003)
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105.2 cu km (2001)
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total: 1.74 cu km/yr (17%/7%/76%)
per capita: 149 cu m/yr (2000)
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periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
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air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe
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People ::Zambia
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11,862,740
country comparison to the world: 71
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
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0-14 years: 45.1% (male 2,685,142/female 2,659,771)
15-64 years: 52.6% (male 3,122,305/female 3,116,846)
65 years and over: 2.3% (male 114,477/female 164,199) (2009 est.)
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total: 17 years
male: 16.9 years
female: 17.2 years (2009 est.)
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1.631% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
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40.24 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
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21.34 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
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-2.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
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urban population: 35% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 101.2 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 9
male: 105.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 96.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 38.63 years
country comparison to the world: 222
male: 38.53 years
female: 38.73 years (2009 est.)
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5.15 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
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15.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
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1.1 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
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56,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
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noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
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African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups), other 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans) (2000 Census)
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Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
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Bemba 30.1% (official), Nyanja 10.7% (official), Tonga 10.6% (official), Lozi 5.7% (official), Chewa 4.9%, Nsenga 3.4%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda 2.2% (official), Kaonde 2% (official), Lala 2%, Luvale 1.7% (official), English 1.7% (official), other 22.5% (2000 Census)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 80.6%
male: 86.8%
female: 74.8% (2003 est.)
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total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 7 years (2000)
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2% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 167
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Government ::Zambia
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conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
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republic
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name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
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24 October 1964 (from the UK)
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Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
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24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
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based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008); note - President BANDA was acting president since the illness and eventual death of President Levy MWANAWASA on 18 August 2008, he was then elected president on 30 October 2008 to serve out the remainder of MWANAWASA's term; the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rupiah BANDA (since 19 August 2008); Vice President George KUNDA (since 14 November 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 30 October 2008 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president; note - due to the death of former President Levy MWANAWASA, early elections were held to identify a replacement to serve out the remainder of his term
election results: Rupiah BANDA elected president; percent of vote - Rupiah BANDA 40.1%, Michael SATA 38.1%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 19.7%, Godfrey MIYANDA 0.8%, other 1.3%
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unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members are appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in October 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MMD 72, PF 44, UDA 27, ULP 2, NDF 1, independents 2; seats not determined 2
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Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
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Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [vacant]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA (a coalition of RP, ZADECO, PUDD, and ZRP); United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
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NA
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ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
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chief of mission: Ambassador Donald E. BOOTH
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 250-955
FAX: [260] (211) 252-225
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green field with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
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Economy ::Zambia
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Zambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent years, with real GDP growth in 2005-08 about 6% per year. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, consisting of approximately USD 6 billion in debt relief. Zambia experienced a bumper harvest in 2007, which helped to boost GDP and agricultural exports and contain inflation. Although poverty continues to be significant problem in Zambia, its economy has strengthened, featuring single-digit inflation, a relatively stable currency, decreasing interest rates, and increasing levels of trade. The decline in world commodity prices and demand will hurt GDP growth in 2009, and elections and campaign promises are likely to weaken Zambia's improved fiscal stance.
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$17.5 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
$16.51 billion (2007 est.)
$15.54 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$14.32 billion (2008 est.)
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6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
6.2% (2007 est.)
6.2% (2006 est.)
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$1,500 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
$1,400 (2007 est.)
$1,400 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 16%
industry: 26.6%
services: 57.4% (2008 est.)
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5.235 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
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agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
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50% (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
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86% (1993)
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lowest 10%: 1.2%
highest 10%: 38.8% (2004)
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50.8 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 20
52.6 (1998)
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25.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
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revenues: $3.291 billion
expenditures: $3.578 billion (2008 est.)
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29.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
127.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
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12.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
10.6% (2007 est.)
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14.49% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 29
11.73% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 21
18.89% (31 December 2007)
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$1.034 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 122
$995.8 million (31 December 2007)
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$1.618 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 104
$1.709 billion (31 December 2007)
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$2.138 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 114
$1.968 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 96
$2.346 billion (31 December 2007)
$1.186 billion (31 December 2006)
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corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
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copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
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6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
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9.752 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
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8.838 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
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268 million kWh (2007)
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222 million kWh (2008 est.)
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159.3 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
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16,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
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275.3 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
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14,730 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
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0 bbl
country comparison to the world: 112
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 84
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
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$-1.224 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$-198 million (2007 est.)
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$4.818 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
$4.594 billion (2007 est.)
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copper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
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Switzerland 36.2%, South Africa 10.5%, China 8.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.9%, Egypt 4.7%, Italy 4.3% (2008)
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$4.694 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
$3.611 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
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South Africa 49.3%, China 8.2%, UAE 7.9%, India 4.4% (2008)
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$1.096 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$1.09 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$2.861 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$2.596 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$40.34 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
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$NA
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Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 3,512.9 (2008 est.), 3,990.2 (2007), 3,601.5 (2006), 4,463.5 (2005), 4,778.9 (2004)
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Communications ::Zambia
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90,600 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 146
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3.539 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 97
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general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
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AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
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9 (2001)
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.zm
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14,951 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 109
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700,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 100
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Transportation ::Zambia
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97 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 64
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total: 9
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2009)
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total: 88
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 65
under 914 m: 18 (2009)
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oil 771 km (2008)
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total: 2,157 km
country comparison to the world: 70
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2008)
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total: 91,440 km
country comparison to the world: 54
paved: 20,117 km
unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)
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2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 40
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Mpulungu
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Military ::Zambia
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Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Zambian Army, Zambian Air Force, National Service (2009)
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18-27 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); Zambian citizenship required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; no conscription (2009)
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males age 16-49: 2,678,668
females age 16-49: 2,567,433 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,364,173
females age 16-49: 1,245,220 (2009 est.)
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male: 149,567
female: 148,889 (2009 est.)
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1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
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Transnational Issues ::Zambia
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in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
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refugees (country of origin): 42,565 (Angola); 60,874 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 4,100 (Rwanda) (2007)
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current situation: Zambia is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; many Zambian child laborers, particularly those in the agriculture, domestic service, and fishing sectors, are also victims of human trafficking; Zambian women, lured by false employment or marriage offers abroad, are trafficked to South Africa via Zimbabwe and to Europe via Malawi for sexual exploitation; Zambia is a transit point for regional trafficking of women and children, particularly from Angola to Namibia and from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to South Africa for agricultural labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Zambia is on the Tier 2 Watch List for failing to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking, particularly in regard to its inability to bring alleged traffickers to justice through prosecutions and convictions; unlike 2006, there were no new prosecutions or convictions of alleged traffickers in 2007; government efforts to protect victims of trafficking remained extremely limited throughout the year (2008)
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transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
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