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Africa :: Togo
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Togo
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Togo
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Introduction ::Togo
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French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
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Geography ::Togo
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Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
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8 00 N, 1 10 E
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total: 56,785 sq km
country comparison to the world: 125
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
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slightly smaller than West Virginia
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total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
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56 km
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territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
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tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
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gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
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phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
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arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
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70 sq km (2003)
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14.7 cu km (2001)
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total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)
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hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
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deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
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People ::Togo
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6,019,877
country comparison to the world: 107
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
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0-14 years: 41.5% (male 1,252,662/female 1,245,379)
15-64 years: 55.7% (male 1,640,982/female 1,714,278)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 65,427/female 101,149) (2009 est.)
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total: 18.7 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.2 years (2009 est.)
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2.711% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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36.44 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
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9.33 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
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NA (2009 est.)
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urban population: 42% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 56.24 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 42
male: 63.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 58.69 years
country comparison to the world: 187
male: 56.56 years
female: 60.88 years (2009 est.)
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4.79 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
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3.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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130,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
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9,100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
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noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
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African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
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Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
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French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
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total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 7 years (2000)
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2.6% of GDP (2002)
country comparison to the world: 156
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Government ::Togo
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conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
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republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
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name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
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27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
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Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
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adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
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French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
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18 years of age; universal (adult)
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chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military; following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
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unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
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Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
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Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
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NA
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ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Kadangha Limbiya BARIKI
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
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chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia McMahon HAWKINS
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20512-2300
telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501
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five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
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Economy ::Togo
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This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.
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$5.118 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
$5.062 billion (2007 est.)
$4.968 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$2.89 billion (2008 est.)
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1.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
1.9% (2007 est.)
3.9% (2006 est.)
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$900 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
$900 (2007 est.)
$900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (2008 est.)
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2.595 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 108
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agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
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NA%
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32% (1989 est.)
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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20.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
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revenues: $438.1 million
expenditures: $519.9 million (2008 est.)
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8.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
1% (2007 est.)
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4.75% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 118
4.25% (31 December 2007)
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NA%
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 130
$624.9 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 143
$383.9 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 142
$590.7 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA
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coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
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phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
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3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
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230 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174
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640 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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514 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2007 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
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20,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
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1,547 bbl/day (2005)
country comparison to the world: 118
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15,270 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 103
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
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$-287 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$-154 million (2007 est.)
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$782 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
$702 million (2007 est.)
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reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
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Ghana 14.3%, Burkina Faso 12.4%, Germany 11%, Benin 7.8%, Brazil 5.6%, Belgium 5.4%, Mali 5%, Netherlands 4.8% (2008)
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$1.549 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
$1.264 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
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China 39.1%, Netherlands 7.9%, France 7.2%, Thailand 5.1% (2008)
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$473 million (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
$438 million (31 December 2007 est.)
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$2 billion (2005)
country comparison to the world: 134
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Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 447.81 (2008 est.), 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
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Communications ::Togo
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140,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 136
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1.547 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 131
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general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 30 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
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AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
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3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
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.tg
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784 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 163
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350,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 120
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Transportation ::Togo
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8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 162
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total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2009)
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total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2009)
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total: 532 km
country comparison to the world: 114
narrow gauge: 532 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
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total: 7,520 km
country comparison to the world: 145
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)
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50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 104
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total: 10
country comparison to the world: 113
by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 6 (Bangladesh 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 1, Lebanon 1, Syria 2) (2008)
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Kpeme, Lome
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Military ::Togo
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Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Ground Forces, Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, FAT), National Gendarmerie (2009)
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18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
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males age 16-49: 1,365,505
females age 16-49: 1,374,993 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 929,395
females age 16-49: 943,967 (2009 est.)
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male: 70,775
female: 70,051 (2009 est.)
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1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
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Transnational Issues ::Togo
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in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
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refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2007)
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transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
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