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Europe :: Slovenia
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Slovenia
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Introduction ::Slovenia
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The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
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Geography ::Slovenia
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Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
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46 07 N, 14 49 E
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total: 20,273 sq km
country comparison to the world: 154
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
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slightly smaller than New Jersey
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total: 1,086 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 455 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 199 km
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46.6 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm
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Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
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a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
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lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
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lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
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arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)
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30 sq km (2003)
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32.1 cu km (2005)
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total: 0.9
per capita: 457 cu m/yr (2002)
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flooding; earthquakes
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Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
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People ::Slovenia
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2,005,692 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
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0-14 years: 13.5% (male 139,880/female 131,826)
15-64 years: 69.9% (male 707,219/female 695,470)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 129,662/female 201,635) (2009 est.)
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total: 41.7 years
male: 40.1 years
female: 43.3 years (2009 est.)
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-0.113% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
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8.97 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
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10.62 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
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0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
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urban population: 48% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 4.25 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 206
male: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 76.92 years
country comparison to the world: 60
male: 73.25 years
female: 80.84 years (2009 est.)
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1.28 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
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less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
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280 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
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fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
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noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
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Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
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Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
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Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
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definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%
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total: 17 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2006)
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6% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 41
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Government ::Slovenia
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conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
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parliamentary republic
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name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: the Government of Slovenia has reported 210 municipalities
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25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
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Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
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adopted 23 December 1991, amended 14 July 1997 and 25 July 2000
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based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
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chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Borut PAHOR (since 7 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the 8 October 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 21 September 2008 (next National Assembly elections to be held in 8 October 2012)
election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Borut PAHOR elected prime minister by National Assembly vote
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bicameral Parliament consists of a National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda) and the National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 September 2008 (next to be held 8 October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - SD 30.5%, SDS 29.3%, ZARES 9.4%, DeSUS 7.5%, SNS 5.5%, SLS+SMS 5.2%, LDS 5.2%, other 7.4%; seats by party - SD 29, SDS 28, ZARES 9, DeSUS 7, SNS 5, SLS+SMS 5, LDS 5, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
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Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
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Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK (acting)]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Bojan SROT]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic]
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Democratic Party of Slovenian Pensioners or DeSUS (protecting the rights of the older generation); Slovenian Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]
other: Catholic Church
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Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD (accession state), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
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chief of mission: Ambassador Roman KIRN
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Brad FREDEN
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
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three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered on the white and blue bands
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Economy ::Slovenia
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Slovenia, which on 1 January 2007 became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro, is a model of economic success and stability for the region. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In December 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the accession process for joining the OECD. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere.
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$59.34 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$57.34 billion (2007 est.)
$53.69 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$54.64 billion (2008 est.)
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3.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
6.8% (2007 est.)
5.9% (2006 est.)
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$29,600 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$28,500 (2007 est.)
$26,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 33.4%
services: 64.3% (2008 est.)
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940,000 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
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agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 36%
services: 61.5% (2007)
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6.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
7.7% (2007 est.)
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12.9% (2004)
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lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.6% (2004)
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24 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 133
28.4 (1998)
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28% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
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revenues: $22.55 billion
expenditures: $22.7 billion (2008 est.)
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23% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
31.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
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5.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
3.6% (2007 est.)
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3% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 103
5% (31 December 2007)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 123
6.82% (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
$9.347 billion (31 December 2006)
note: the figure for 2006 represents the US dollar value of tolars in circulation prior to Slovenia joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
$12.69 billion (31 December 2006)
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$45.19 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 62
$41.63 billion (31 December 2007)
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$11.77 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 64
$28.96 billion (31 December 2007)
$15.18 billion (31 December 2006)
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potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
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ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
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1.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
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14.14 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
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13.5 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
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7.82 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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6.218 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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5 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
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61,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
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8,450 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
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63,080 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
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1 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 117
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1 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
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$-2.92 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
$-1.982 billion (2007 est.)
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$29.59 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$27.09 billion (2007 est.)
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manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
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Germany 18.6%, Italy 11.7%, Croatia 8.3%, Austria 7.5%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.8% (2008)
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$33.43 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$29.42 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
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Germany 17.2%, Italy 16.6%, Austria 11.2%, France 4.7%, Croatia 4.1% (2008)
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$7.57 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$5.682 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$54.41 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 51
$50.58 billion (31 December 2007)
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$11.96 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$10.41 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$7.627 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
$6.127 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007)
note: Slovenia adopted the euro as its currency on 1 January 2007
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Communications ::Slovenia
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1.01 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 81
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2.055 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
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general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386
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AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)
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31 (2006)
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.si
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88,567 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 75
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1.126 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 84
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Transportation ::Slovenia
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16 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 143
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total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2009)
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gas 840 km; oil 11 km (2008)
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total: 1,228 km
country comparison to the world: 85
standard gauge: 1,228 km 1.435-m gauge (503 km electrified) (2007)
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total: 38,709 km
country comparison to the world: 90
paved: 38,709 km (includes 579 km of expressways) (2007)
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some transport on Danube River (2008)
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registered in other countries: 29 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Liberia 3, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1, Slovakia 1) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 88
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Koper
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Military ::Slovenia
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Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)
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17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2007)
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males age 16-49: 494,496
females age 16-49: 481,180 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 402,484
females age 16-49: 390,559 (2009 est.)
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male: 10,192
female: 9,717 (2009 est.)
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1.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
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Transnational Issues ::Slovenia
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the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
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minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals
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The online Factbook is updated bi-weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.