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Africa :: Senegal
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Senegal
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Senegal
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Introduction ::Senegal
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The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982, but the envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007, but complaints of fraud led opposition parties to boycott June 2007 legislative polls. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping.
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Geography ::Senegal
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Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
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14 00 N, 14 00 W
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total: 196,722 sq km
country comparison to the world: 87
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
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slightly smaller than South Dakota
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total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
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531 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
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tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
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generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed feature near Nepen Diakha 581 m
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fish, phosphates, iron ore
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arable land: 12.51%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 87.25% (2005)
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1,200 sq km (2003)
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39.4 cu km (1987)
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total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
per capita: 190 cu m/yr (2002)
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lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
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wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
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People ::Senegal
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13,711,597 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
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0-14 years: 42.2% (male 2,911,324/female 2,877,804)
15-64 years: 54.8% (male 3,728,664/female 3,786,000)
65 years and over: 3% (male 190,343/female 217,462) (2009 est.)
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total: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2009 est.)
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2.709% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
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36.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
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9.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
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urban population: 42% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 58.94 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 40
male: 65.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.98 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 59 years
country comparison to the world: 186
male: 57.12 years
female: 60.93 years (2009 est.)
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4.95 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
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1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
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67,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
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1,800 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
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noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
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Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
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Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
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French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39.3%
male: 51.1%
female: 29.2% (2002 est.)
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5% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 74
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Government ::Senegal
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conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
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republic
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name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
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4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
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Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
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adopted 7 January 2001
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based on French civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; the Council of State audits the government's accounting office; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Soulayemane Ndene NDIAYE (since 1 May 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
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bicameral Parliament consisting of the Senate, reinstituted in 2007, (100 seats; 35 indirectly elected with the remaining 65 members to be appointed by the president) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote with the remaining members elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA); National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2007 (next to be held 2012); note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006; legislative elections were first rescheduled to coincide with the 25 February 2007 presidential elections and later rescheduled for 3 June 2007; the June election was boycotted by 12 opposition parties, including the former ruling Socialist Party, which resulted in a record-low 35% voter turnout
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 appointed by the president; National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 131, other 19
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Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
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African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky Sall]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi Party [Idrissa Seck]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
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other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
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ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Amadou Lamine BA
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
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chief of mission: Ambassador Marcia S. BERNICAT
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-829-2100
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
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three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
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Economy ::Senegal
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In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. This reform began with a 50% devaluation of Senegal's currency, the CFA franc, which was linked at a fixed rate to the French franc. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2008. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the single digits. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Senegal was also beset by an energy crisis that caused widespread blackouts in 2006 and 2007. The phosphate industry has struggled for two years to secure capital, and reduced output has directly impacted GDP. In 2007, Senegal signed agreements for major new mining concessions for iron, zircon, and gold with foreign companies. Firms from Dubai have agreed to manage and modernize Dakar's maritime port, and create a new special economic zone. Senegal still relies heavily upon outside donor assistance. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal has benefited from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt. In 2007, Senegal and the IMF agreed to a new, non-disbursing, Policy Support Initiative program.
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$21.98 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$20.97 billion (2007 est.)
$20.07 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$13.35 billion (2008 est.)
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4.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
4.5% (2007 est.)
2% (2006 est.)
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$1,600 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
$1,600 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 16.1%
industry: 19.3%
services: 64.6% (2008 est.)
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4.973 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
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agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
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48% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
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54% (2001 est.)
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lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 30.1% (2005)
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41.3 (2001)
country comparison to the world: 57
41.3 (1995)
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25.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
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revenues: $3.077 billion
expenditures: $3.802 billion (2008 est.)
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16.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
55.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
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5.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
5.9% (2007 est.)
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4.75% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
4.25% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
NA% (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 83
$2.842 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 106
$1.579 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 107
$2.97 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA
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peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
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agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
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4.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
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1.88 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
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1.384 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
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38,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
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5,653 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
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42,850 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
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50 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
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50 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
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0 cu m
country comparison to the world: 139
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$-1.31 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
$-1.18 billion (2007 est.)
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$1.983 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
$1.65 billion (2007 est.)
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fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
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Mali 19.5%, India 5.9%, France 5.5%, Gambia, The 5.4%, Italy 4.9% (2008)
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$4.313 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$3.732 billion (2007 est.)
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food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
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France 20%, UK 15.4%, China 7.5%, Belgium 4.6%, Thailand 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2008)
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$1.601 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$1.66 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.772 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
$2.19 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 447.81 (2008 est.), 481.83 (2007), 522.89 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the West African CFA franc (XOF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; West African CFA franc (XOF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using Central African CFA francs (XAF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
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Communications ::Senegal
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237,800 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
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5.389 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 83
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general assessment: good system
domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly; microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
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AM 8, FM 20, shortwave 1 (2001)
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4 (2007)
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.sn
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227 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 186
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1.02 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 86
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Transportation ::Senegal
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19 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 136
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total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
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gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2008)
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total: 906 km
country comparison to the world: 94
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000 meter gauge (2008)
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total: 13,576 km
country comparison to the world: 127
paved: 3,972 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,604 km (2003)
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1,000 km (primarily on Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 64
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Dakar
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Military ::Senegal
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Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2008)
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18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
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males age 16-49: 2,943,619
females age 16-49: 2,955,179 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 2,038,508
females age 16-49: 2,207,510 (2009 est.)
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male: 154,249
female: 153,679 (2009 est.)
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1.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
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Transnational Issues ::Senegal
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The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
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refugees (country of origin): 19,630 (Mauritania)
IDPs: 22,400 (approximately 65% of the IDP population returned in 2005, but new displacement is occurring due to clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2007)
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transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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