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Middle East :: Qatar
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Qatar
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Qatar
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Map of Qatar
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Introduction ::Qatar
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Ruled by the al-Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the Amir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani, overthrew him in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. As of 2007, oil and natural gas revenues had enabled Qatar to attain the second-highest per capita income in the world.
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Geography ::Qatar
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Middle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
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25 30 N, 51 15 E
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total: 11,586 sq km
country comparison to the world: 165
land: 11,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
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slightly smaller than Connecticut
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total: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
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563 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
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arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
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mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
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lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m
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petroleum, natural gas, fish
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arable land: 1.64%
permanent crops: 0.27%
other: 98.09% (2005)
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130 sq km (2002)
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0.1 cu km (1997)
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total: 0.29 cu km/yr (24%/3%/72%)
per capita: 358 cu m/yr (2000)
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haze, dust storms, sandstorms common
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limited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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strategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
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People ::Qatar
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833,285 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
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0-14 years: 21.8% (male 93,805/female 88,040)
15-64 years: 76.8% (male 454,714/female 185,004)
65 years and over: 1.4% (male 6,792/female 4,930) (2009 est.)
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total: 30.8 years
male: 32.8 years
female: 25.4 years (2009 est.)
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0.957% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
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15.61 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
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2.46 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 219
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-3.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
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urban population: 96% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.46 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.38 male(s)/female
total population: 2 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 12.66 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 140
male: 13.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 75.35 years
country comparison to the world: 80
male: 73.66 years
female: 77.14 years (2009 est.)
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2.45 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
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0.09% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
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NA
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NA
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noun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
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Arab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
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Muslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
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Arabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89.1%
female: 88.6% (2004 census)
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total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)
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3.3% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 136
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Government ::Qatar
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conventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
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emirate
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name: Doha
geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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10 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Sa'id, Umm Salal
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3 September 1971 (from the UK)
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Independence Day, 3 September (1971); also observed is National Day, 18 December
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ratified by public referendum on 29 April 2003, endorsed by the Amir on 8 June 2004, effective on 9 June 2005
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based on Islamic and civil law codes; discretionary system of law controlled by the Amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as heir apparent, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, in a bloodless coup); Heir Apparent TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary
note: in April 2007, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has limited consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999
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unicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)
note: no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every year since the new constitution came into force on 9 June 2005; the constitution provides for a new 45-member Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura; the public would elect two-thirds of the Majlis al-Shura; the Amir would appoint the remaining members; preparations are underway to conduct elections to the Majlis al-Shura
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Courts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; an Administrative Court and a Constitutional Court were established in 2007; note - all judges are appointed by Amiri Decree based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council for renewable three-year terms
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none
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none
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ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Ali Fahad al-Shahwany al-HAJRI
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600 and 274-1603
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061
consulate(s) general: Houston
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chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LEBARON
embassy: Al-Luqta District, 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 488 4161
FAX: [974] 488 4150
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maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side
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Economy ::Qatar
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Qatar has experienced rapid economic growth over the last several years on the back of high oil prices, and in 2008 posted its eighth consecutive budget surplus. Economic policy is focused on developing Qatar's nonassociated natural gas reserves and increasing private and foreign investment in non-energy sectors, but oil and gas still account for more than 50% of GDP, roughly 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar the second highest per-capita income country - following Liechtenstein - and one of the world's fastest growing. Proved oil reserves of 15 billion barrels should enable continued output at current levels for 37 years. Qatar's proved reserves of natural gas are nearly 26 trillion cubic meters, about 14% of the world total and third largest in the world. The drop in oil prices in late 2008 and the global financial crisis will reduce Qatar's budget surplus and may slow the pace of investment and development projects in 2009.
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$91.33 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
$80.54 billion (2007 est.)
$68.66 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$102.3 billion (2008 est.)
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13.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
17.3% (2007 est.)
12.2% (2006 est.)
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$110,700 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
$98,800 (2007 est.)
$85,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 74.9%
services: 25.1% (2008 est.)
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1.119 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
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0.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
0.7% (2007 est.)
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NA%
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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32.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
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revenues: $36.59 billion
expenditures: $27.14 billion (2008 est.)
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4.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
11% of GDP (2007 est.)
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15.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
13.7% (2007 est.)
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5.5% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 79
5.5% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 115
7.43% (31 December 2007)
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$11.93 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 55
$9.718 billion (31 December 2007)
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$26.78 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 47
$22.6 billion (31 December 2007)
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$47.59 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 65
$30.52 billion (31 December 2007)
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$76.31 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 49
$95.49 billion (31 December 2007)
$61.56 billion (31 December 2006)
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fruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
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crude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
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13% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
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15.11 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
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13.73 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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1.208 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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129,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
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1.043 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
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15.21 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
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76.98 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
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20.2 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
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56.78 billion cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 6
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
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25.26 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
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$20.95 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$10.45 billion (2007 est.)
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$55.06 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
$42.02 billion (2007 est.)
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liquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
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Japan 40.8%, South Korea 16.3%, Singapore 11.8%, Thailand 4.6%, India 4.4% (2008)
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$21.16 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
$19.82 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
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US 12.3%, Germany 9.2%, Italy 9.1%, Japan 8.1%, France 6.3%, UAE 5.6%, South Korea 5.5%, UK 5%, Saudi Arabia 4.7%, Turkey 4.3% (2008)
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$9.998 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$9.752 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$55.79 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
$33.09 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$3.627 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
$2.601 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$13.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$6.993 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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Qatari rials (QAR) per US dollar - 3.64 (2008 est.), 3.64 (2007), 3.64 (2006), 3.64 (2005), 3.64 (2004)
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Communications ::Qatar
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263,400 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 117
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1.683 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 128
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general assessment: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership exceeds 200 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat (2008)
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AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)
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1 (plus 3 repeaters) (2001)
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.qa
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722 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 166
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436,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 111
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Transportation ::Qatar
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5 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 178
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total: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
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1 (2009)
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condensate 145 km; condensate/gas 132 km; gas 978 km; liquid petroleum gas 90 km; oil 382 km (2008)
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total: 7,790 km (2006)
country comparison to the world: 143
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total: 22
country comparison to the world: 96
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 2, chemical tanker 2, container 8, liquefied gas 4, petroleum tanker 4
foreign-owned: 7 (Kuwait 7)
registered in other countries: 5 (Liberia 4, Panama 1) (2008)
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Doha, Ra's Laffan
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Military ::Qatar
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Qatari Amiri Land Force (QALF), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF) (2009)
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18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
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males age 16-49: 320,383
females age 16-49: 167,475 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 318,388
females age 16-49: 136,841 (2009 est.)
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male: 6,337
female: 5,059 (2009 est.)
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10% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
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Transnational Issues ::Qatar
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none
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current situation: Qatar is a destination country for men and women from South and Southeast Asia who migrate willingly, but are subsequently trafficked into involuntary servitude as domestic workers and laborers, and, to a lesser extent, commercial sexual exploitation; the most common offense was forcing workers to accept worse contract terms than those under which they were recruited; other conditions include bonded labor, withholding of pay, restrictions on movement, arbitrary detention, and physical, mental, and sexual abuse
tier rating: Tier 3 - Qatar failed, for the second consecutive year, to enforce criminal laws against traffickers, or to provide an effective mechanism to identify and protect victims; it continues to detain and deport victims rather than providing them protection; the government made little progress to increase prosecutions for trafficking in a meaningful way in 2007; workers complaining of working conditions or non-payment of wages were sometimes penalized (2008)
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