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Europe :: Luxembourg
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Luxembourg
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Luxembourg
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Map of Luxembourg
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Introduction ::Luxembourg
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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
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Geography ::Luxembourg
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Western Europe, between France and Germany
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49 45 N, 6 10 E
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total: 2,586 sq km
country comparison to the world: 178
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
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slightly smaller than Rhode Island
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total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
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mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
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lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
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iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
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arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)
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NA
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1.6 cu km (2005)
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total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)
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NA
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air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
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People ::Luxembourg
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491,775 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
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0-14 years: 18.5% (male 46,918/female 44,052)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 165,342/female 162,681)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 29,839/female 42,943) (2009 est.)
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total: 39.2 years
male: 38.2 years
female: 40.2 years (2009 est.)
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1.172% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
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11.73 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
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8.44 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
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8.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
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urban population: 82% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 199
male: 4.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 79.33 years
country comparison to the world: 31
male: 76.07 years
female: 82.81 years (2009 est.)
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1.78 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
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0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
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fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
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fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
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noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
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Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)
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Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
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Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
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total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2006)
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3.4% of GDP (1999)
country comparison to the world: 131
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Government ::Luxembourg
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conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
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constitutional monarchy
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name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
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1839 (from the Netherlands)
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National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
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17 October 1868; occasional revisions
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based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal and compulsory
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chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
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unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
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judicial courts and tribunals (three Justices of the Peace, two district courts, and one Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
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Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN]; Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; other minor parties
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ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
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ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
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chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
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chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
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three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
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Economy ::Luxembourg
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This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks third in the world, after Liechtenstein and Qatar. After two years of strong economic growth in 2006-07, turmoil in the world financial markets trimmed Luxembourg's economy in 2008.
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$39.37 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$39.74 billion (2007 est.)
$37.78 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$54.97 billion (2008 est.)
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-0.9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
5.2% (2007 est.)
6.4% (2006 est.)
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$81,000 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$82,800 (2007 est.)
$79,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 0.4%
industry: 13.6%
services: 86% (2007 est.)
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207,100 of whom 125,400 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
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agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 80.6% (2007 est.)
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4.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
4.4% (2007 est.)
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NA%
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lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
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26 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 126
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20.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
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revenues: $22.42 billion
expenditures: $21 billion (2008 est.)
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10.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
6.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
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3.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
2.3% (2007 est.)
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3% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 107
5% (31 December 2007)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
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$NA
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
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$NA
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$100.8 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 44
$100.9 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 41
$166.1 billion (31 December 2007)
$79.52 billion (31 December 2006)
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wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products
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banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
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1.7% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
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2.696 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
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6.525 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
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2.483 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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6.83 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
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59,140 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
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168 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
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60,030 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
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1.255 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 160
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1.255 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
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$2.979 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$4.928 billion (2007 est.)
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$21.43 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$18.26 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
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Germany 21.7%, France 17.3%, Belgium 10%, Italy 6.9%, UK 6.5%, Netherlands 6%, Spain 5% (2008)
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$27.73 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$23.09 billion (2007 est.)
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minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
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Belgium 28.1%, Germany 23.8%, China 18.8%, France 10%, Netherlands 4.9% (2008)
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$398 million (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
$205.5 million (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.933 trillion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
$NA (31 December 2007)
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$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
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$NA
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euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008 est.), 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)
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Communications ::Luxembourg
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260,600 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 118
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707,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 149
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general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
international: country code - 352 (2008)
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AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
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5 (1999)
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.lu
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220,107 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 62
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387,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 113
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Transportation ::Luxembourg
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2 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 208
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total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
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1 (2009)
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gas 155 km (2008)
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total: 275 km
country comparison to the world: 125
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2008)
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total: 5,227 km
country comparison to the world: 152
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2004)
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37 km (on Moselle River) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 106
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total: 45
country comparison to the world: 74
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 3, chemical tanker 15, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 44 (Belgium 7, Denmark 1, France 17, Germany 5, Netherlands 2, UK 8, US 4)
registered in other countries: 1 (Ukraine 1) (2008)
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Mertert
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Military ::Luxembourg
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Army (2009)
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17-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2008)
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males age 16-49: 116,305
females age 16-49: 114,566 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 95,840
females age 16-49: 94,641 (2009 est.)
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male: 3,170
female: 2,995 (2009 est.)
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0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
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Transnational Issues ::Luxembourg
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none
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