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Europe :: Lithuania
page last updated on October 28, 2009
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Location of Lithuania
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Introduction ::Lithuania
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Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795, when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
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Geography ::Lithuania
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Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
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56 00 N, 24 00 E
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total: 65,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 122
land: 62,680 sq km
water: 2,620 sq km
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slightly larger than West Virginia
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total: 1,574 km
border countries: Belarus 680 km, Latvia 576 km, Poland 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 227 km
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90 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm
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transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
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lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
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lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 294 m
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peat, arable land, amber
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arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)
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70 sq km (2003)
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24.5 cu km (2005)
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total: 3.33 cu km/yr (78%/15%/7%)
per capita: 971 cu m/yr (2003)
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NA
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contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
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People ::Lithuania
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3,555,179 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
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0-14 years: 14.2% (male 258,423/female 245,115)
15-64 years: 69.6% (male 1,214,743/female 1,261,413)
65 years and over: 16.2% (male 198,714/female 376,771) (2009 est.)
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total: 39.3 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 41.9 years (2009 est.)
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-0.279% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
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9.11 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
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11.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
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-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
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urban population: 67% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.53 male(s)/female
total population: 0.89 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 6.47 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 176
male: 7.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 74.9 years
country comparison to the world: 86
male: 69.98 years
female: 80.1 years (2009 est.)
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1.23 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
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0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
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2,200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
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fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
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degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2009)
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noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
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Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
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Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
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Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)
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total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2006)
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5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 72
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Government ::Lithuania
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conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
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parliamentary democracy
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name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
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11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)
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Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
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adopted 25 October 1992; last amended 13 July 2004
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based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE (since 12 July 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrius KUBILIUS (since 27 November 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 17 May 2009 (next to be held in May 2014); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE elected president; percent of vote - Dalia GRYBAUSKAITE 69.1%, Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS 11.8%, Valentinas MAZURONIS 6.2%, others 12.9%; Andrius KUBILIUS' government approved by Parliament 83-40 with 5 abstentions
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unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 and 26 October 2008 (next to be held October 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 19.7%, TPP 15.1%, TT 12.7%, LSDP 11.7%, KDP+J 9%, LRLS 5.7%, LCS 5.3%, LLRA 4.8%, LVLS 3.7%, NS 3.6%, other 8.7%; seats by faction - TS-LKD 44, LSDP 26, TPP 16, TT 15, LRLS 11, KDP+J 10, LCS 8, LLRA 3, LVLS 3, NS 1, independent 4
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Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the president
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Civil Democracy Party or PDP [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Coalition of Labor Party and Youth or KDP+J [Viktor USPASKICH]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; Homeland Union - Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union or LVLS [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Liberal and Center Union or LCS [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Movement or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS]; National Revival or TPP [Arunas VALINSKAS]; New Union (Social Liberal) or NS [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gediminas KIRKILAS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
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Europe House (promotes the EU); European Movement (promotes the EU); Lithuanian Future Forum (promotes the EU)
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Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
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chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
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three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
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Economy ::Lithuania
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Lithuania's economy grew on average 8% per year for the four years prior to 2008, driven by exports and domestic consumer demand. Unemployment stood at 4.8% in 2008, while wages grew at double digit rates. The current account deficit rose to roughly 15% of GDP in 2007-08. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Despite Lithuania's EU accession, Lithuania's trade with its Central and Eastern European neighbors, and Russia in particular, accounts for a growing percentage of total trade. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy.
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$63.33 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
$61.43 billion (2007 est.)
$56.1 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$47.3 billion (2008 est.)
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3.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
9.5% (2007 est.)
7.5% (2006 est.)
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$17,800 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$17,200 (2007 est.)
$15,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 4.5%
industry: 32.2%
services: 63.3% (2008 est.)
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1.614 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
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agriculture: 14%
industry: 29.1%
services: 56.9% (2005)
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5.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
3.5% (2007 est.)
note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7%
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4% (2003)
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lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2003)
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36 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 85
34 (1999)
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24.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
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revenues: $15.15 billion
expenditures: $16.66 billion (2008 est.)
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15.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
25.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
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10.9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
5.7% (2007 est.)
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4.73% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 109
4.85% (31 December 2007)
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6.29% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 122
6.86% (31 December 2007)
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$9.519 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
$11.84 billion (31 December 2007)
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$8.419 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 69
$6.917 billion (31 December 2007)
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$29.21 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 69
$25.05 billion (31 December 2007)
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$3.625 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 74
$10.13 billion (31 December 2007)
$10.19 billion (31 December 2006)
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grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
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metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
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1.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
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12.09 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
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9.612 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
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6.606 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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5.649 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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8,247 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
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73,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
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137,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
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204,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
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12 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
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3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 75
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3.53 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
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$-5.629 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
$-5.692 billion (2007 est.)
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$23.74 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$17.16 billion (2007 est.)
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mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
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Russia 16%, Latvia 11.6%, Germany 7.2%, Poland 5.8%, Estonia 5.7%, France 4.9%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.7%, Belarus 4.5% (2008)
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$29.3 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$23.04 billion (2007 est.)
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mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
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Russia 30.2%, Germany 11.7%, Poland 10%, Latvia 5.2% (2008)
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$6.441 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
$7.721 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$32.47 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 62
$30.1 billion (31 December 2007)
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$12.85 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$15.06 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.985 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$1.65 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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litai (LTL) per US dollar - 2.3251 (2008 est.), 2.5362 (2007), 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004)
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Communications ::Lithuania
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784,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 88
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5.023 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 87
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general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of main line subscriptions; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to about 140 per 100 persons while fixed-line teledensity has dropped to 22 per 100 persons
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2008)
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AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
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44 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2008)
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.lt
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885,064 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 39
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1.777 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 72
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Transportation ::Lithuania
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87 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 67
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total: 32
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 19 (2009)
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total: 55
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 51 (2009)
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gas 1,695 km; refined products 114 km (2008)
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total: 1,765 km
country comparison to the world: 78
broad gauge: 1,743 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
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total: 80,715 km
country comparison to the world: 57
paved: 71,301 km (includes 309 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,414 km (2007)
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441 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 86
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total: 45
country comparison to the world: 73
by type: cargo 23, container 2, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 13
foreign-owned: 6 (Denmark 5, Ukraine 1)
registered in other countries: 28 (Antigua and Barbuda 5, Cook Islands 1, North Korea 1, Malta 1, Norway 1, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9, unknown 3) (2008)
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Klaipeda
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Military ::Lithuania
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Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), National Defense Volunteer Forces (2009)
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19-26 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation; male registration required at age 16 (2009)
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males age 16-49: 915,187
females age 16-49: 906,097 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 677,689
females age 16-49: 743,468 (2009 est.)
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male: 23,556
female: 22,404 (2009 est.)
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1.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
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Transnational Issues ::Lithuania
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Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
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transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation
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