Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

 
Central Intelligence Agency
The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence
CIA - The World Factbook The World Factbook Home
CIA - The World Factbook
Europe :: Latvia
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Latvia
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Latvia
Click flag or map to enlarge Opens in New Window
 
Map of Latvia
Click map to enlarge Opens in New Window
No Photos available for Latvia
 
no photos available of Latvia
Expand All | collapse All
Introduction ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
The name "Latvia" originates from the ancient Latgalians, one of four eastern Baltic tribes that formed the ethnic core of the Latvian people (ca. 8th-12th centuries A.D.). The region subsequently came under the control of Germans, Poles, Swedes, and finally, Russians. A Latvian republic emerged following World War I, but it was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. Latvia reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Back to Top
Geography ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
57 00 N, 25 00 E
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 64,589 sq km
country comparison to the world: 123
land: 62,249 sq km
water: 2,340 sq km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
slightly larger than West Virginia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 1,382 km
border countries: Belarus 171 km, Estonia 343 km, Lithuania 576 km, Russia 292 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
498 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
maritime; wet, moderate winters
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
low plain
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Galzina Kalns 312 m
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
peat, limestone, dolomite, amber, hydropower, wood, arable land
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 28.19%
permanent crops: 0.45%
other: 71.36% (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
200 sq km
note: land in Latvia is often too wet and in need of drainage not irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq km or 85% of agricultural land has been improved by drainage (2003)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
49.9 cu km (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 0.25 cu km/yr (55%/33%/12%)
per capita: 108 cu m/yr (2003)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Latvia's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household, and hazardous waste management, as well as reduction of air pollution; in 2001, Latvia closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the east
Back to Top
People ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2,231,503 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 13.3% (male 152,472/female 145,161)
15-64 years: 69.6% (male 756,469/female 797,505)
65 years and over: 17% (male 124,432/female 255,464) (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 40.1 years
male: 37.1 years
female: 43.3 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-0.614% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 228
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
9.78 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
13.62 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-2.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 68% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 8.77 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 161
male: 10.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 72.15 years
country comparison to the world: 119
male: 66.98 years
female: 77.59 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.3 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.8% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
10,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Latvian(s)
adjective: Latvian
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% (2002)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Lutheran 19.6%, Orthodox 15.3%, other Christian 1%, other 0.4%, unspecified 63.7% (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Latvian (official) 58.2%, Russian 37.5%, Lithuanian and other 4.3% (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 16 years
male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.1% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 66
Back to Top
Government ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: Republic of Latvia
conventional short form: Latvia
local long form: Latvijas Republika
local short form: Latvija
former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
parliamentary democracy
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Riga
geographic coordinates: 56 57 N, 24 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 November 1918 (from the Soviet Russia)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Independence Day, 18 November (1918); note - 18 November 1918 was the date Latvia declared itself independent from Soviet Russia; 4 May 1990 is when it declared the renewal of independence; 21 August 1991 was the date of de facto independence from the Soviet Union
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
15 February 1922; restored to force by the Constitutional Law of the Republic of Latvia adopted by the Supreme Council on 21 August 1991; multiple amendments since
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
based on civil law system with traces of Socialist legal traditions and practices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: President Valdis ZATLERS (since 8 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Valdis DOMBROVSKIS (since 12 March 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by Parliament
elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 31 May 2007 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by Parliament
election results: Valdis ZATLERS elected president; parliamentary vote - Valdis ZATLERS 58, Aivars ENDZINS 39
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - TP 19.5%, ZZS 16.7%, JL 16.4%, SC 14.4%; LPP/LC 8.6%; TB/LNNK 6.9%; PCTVL 6%; seats by party - TP 23, ZZS 18, JL 18, SC 17, LPP/LC 10, TB/LNNK 8, PCTVL 6; note - seats by party as of January 2009 - TP 21, SC 18, ZZS 17, JL 14, LPP/LC 10, Civic Union 7, TB/LNNK 5, PCTVL 5, independents 3
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by parliament); Constitutional Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by parliament)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Civic Union [Sandra KALNIETE, Girts Valdis KRISTOVSKIS]; First Party of Latvia/Latvia's Way or LPP/LC [Ainars SLESERS, Ivars GODMANIS]; For Human Rights in a United Latvia or PCTVL [Jakovs PLINERS, Tatjana ZDANOKA]; For the Fatherland and Freedom/Latvian National Independence Movement or TB/LNNK [Roberts ZILE, Maris GRINBLATS]; Harmony Center or SC [Nils USAKOVS, Janis URBANOVICS]; New Era Party or JL [Solvita ABOLTINA, Dzintars ZAKIS]; People's Party or TP [Mareks SEGLINS]; Society for Different Politics or SCP [Aigars STOKENBERGS; Artis PABRIKS]; The Union of Latvian Greens and Farmers Party or ZZS [Augusts BRIGMANIS]
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Free Trade Union Confederation of Latvia [Peteris KRIGERS], Employers' Confederation of Latvia [Elina EGLE], Farmers' Parliament [Juris LAZDINS]
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrejs PILDEGOVICS
chancery: 2306 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-2840
FAX: [1] (202) 328-2860
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Bruce ROGERS
embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV-1510
mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723
telephone: [371] 670-36200
FAX: [371] 678-20047
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon
Back to Top
Economy ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Latvia's economy experienced GDP growth of more than 10% per year during 2006-07; but entered a severe recession in 2008 as a result of an unsustainable current account deficit and large debt exposure amid the softening world economy. The IMF, EU, and other donors provided assistance to Latvia as part of an agreement to defend the currency's peg to the euro and reduce the fiscal deficit to about 5% of GDP. The majority of companies, banks, and real estate have been privatized, although the state still holds sizable stakes in a few large enterprises. Latvia officially joined the World Trade Organization in February 1999. EU membership, a top foreign policy goal, came in May 2004. The current account deficit and inflation remain major concerns.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$38.86 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
$40.74 billion (2007 est.)
$37.03 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$34.05 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-4.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
10% (2007 est.)
12.2% (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$17,300 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$18,000 (2007 est.)
$16,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 22.7%
services: 74.2% (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.193 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 12.1%
industry: 25.8%
services: 61.8% (2005 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
5.7% (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA%
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.4% (2004)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
36 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 84
32 (1999)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
30.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $12.06 billion
expenditures: $13.41 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
19.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
11.8% of GDP (2004 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
15.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
10.1% (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 76
6% (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
16.8% (31 December 2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$6.688 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 59
$8.196 billion (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$5.572 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 79
$5.113 billion (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$30.49 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 66
$27.56 billion (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.609 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 91
$3.111 billion (31 December 2007)
$2.705 billion (31 December 2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
buses, vans, street and railroad cars; synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note - dependent on imports for energy and raw materials
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-4.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4.62 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6.822 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.123 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4.643 billion kWh (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
39,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5,873 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
43,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.05 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 76
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.05 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$-4.354 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
$-6.485 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$9.559 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
$8.227 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Lithuania 15.5%, Russia 14.8%, Estonia 13.1%, Germany 7.7%, Sweden 6.2%, Denmark 4.3% (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$15.34 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
$15.13 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Lithuania 16.1%, Germany 12.9%, Russia 10.7%, Poland 7%, Estonia 7%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3% (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$5.248 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
$5.758 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$42.05 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
$38.95 billion (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$9.779 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.013 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
$782 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lati (LVL) per US dollar - 0.4701 (2008 est.), 0.5162 (2007), 0.5597 (2006), 0.5647 (2005), 0.5402 (2004)
Back to Top
Communications ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
644,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 92
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.234 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as wireless telephone service expands
domestic: number of telecommunications operators has grown rapidly since the fixed-line market opened to competition in 2003; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 371; the Latvian network is now connected via fiber optic cable to Estonia, Finland, and Sweden (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
AM 8, FM 62, shortwave 1 (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
37 (plus 31 repeaters) (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
.lv
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
257,414 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 60
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.254 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 82
Back to Top
Transportation ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
43 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 100
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 20
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 8 (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 23
under 914 m: 23 (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gas 948 km; refined products 415 km (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 2,298 km
country comparison to the world: 67
broad gauge: 2,265 km 1.520-m gauge
narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 69,675 km
country comparison to the world: 68
paved: 69,675 km (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
300 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 93
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 22
country comparison to the world: 95
by type: cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Estonia 2)
registered in other countries: 118 (Antigua and Barbuda 13, Belize 12, Cambodia 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 1, Dominica 1, Jamaica 1, Liberia 21, Malta 19, Marshall Islands 16, Panama 8, Russia 2, Saint Kitts and Nevis 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 17) (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Riga, Ventspils
Back to Top
Military ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
National Armed Forces (Nacionalo Brunoto Speku): Ground Forces, Navy (Latvijas Juras Speki; includes Coast Guard (Latvijas Kara Flotes)), Latvian Air Force (Latvijas Gaisa Speki), Border Guard, Latvian Home Guard (Latvijas Zemessardze) (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; conscription abolished January 2007; under current law, every citizen is entitled to serve in the armed forces for life (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 568,683
females age 16-49: 565,826 (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 410,374
females age 16-49: 463,144 (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 12,901
female: 12,497 (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
Back to Top
Transnational Issues ::Latvia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Russia demands better Latvian treatment of ethnic Russians in Latvia; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documentation in preparation; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Latvia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules with Russia
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
transshipment and destination point for cocaine, synthetic drugs, opiates, and cannabis from Southwest Asia, Western Europe, Latin America, and neighboring Balkan countries; despite improved legislation, vulnerable to money laundering due to nascent enforcement capabilities and comparatively weak regulation of offshore companies and the gaming industry; CIS organized crime (including counterfeiting, corruption, extortion, stolen cars, and prostitution) accounts for most laundered proceeds
Back to Top
Expand All | collapse All
The online Factbook is updated bi-weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.