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Europe :: Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the UK)
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Gibraltar
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Gibraltar
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Map of Gibraltar
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of Gibraltar
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Introduction ::Gibraltar
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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since the referendum, tripartite talks on other issues have been held with Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar, and in September 2006 a three-way agreement was signed. Spain agreed to remove restrictions on air movements, to speed up customs procedures, to implement international telephone dialing, and to allow mobile roaming agreements. Britain agreed to pay increased pensions to Spaniards who had been employed in Gibraltar before the border closed. Spain will be allowed to open a cultural institute from which the Spanish flag will fly. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
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Geography ::Gibraltar
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Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
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36 08 N, 5 21 W
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total: 6.5 sq km
country comparison to the world: 241
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
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slightly less than one-half the size of Rhode Island
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total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km
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12 km
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territorial sea: 3 nm
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Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
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a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
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lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
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none
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arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
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NA
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NA
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limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
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strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
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People ::Gibraltar
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28,034 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
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0-14 years: 16.7% (male 2,393/female 2,276)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 9,532/female 9,219)
65 years and over: 16.5% (male 2,125/female 2,489) (2009 est.)
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total: 40.5 years
male: 39.9 years
female: 41 years (2009 est.)
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0.111% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
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10.67 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
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9.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
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urban population: 100% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 4.83 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 194
male: 5.37 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 80.19 years
country comparison to the world: 20
male: 77.3 years
female: 83.22 years (2009 est.)
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1.65 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
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NA
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NA
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NA
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noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
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Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
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Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
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English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
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definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA
female: NA
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NA
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Government ::Gibraltar
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conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
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overseas territory of the UK
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NA
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name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
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National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or go with Spain
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5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007
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the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
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18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more
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chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Sir Robert FULTON (since 27 October 2006)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
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unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the Speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than October 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3
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Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
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Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
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Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
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Interpol (subbureau), UPU
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
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two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band
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Economy ::Gibraltar
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Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, the shipping sector, and tourism each contribute 25%-30% of GDP. Telecommunications accounts for another 10%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
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$1.066 billion (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
$769 million (2000 est.)
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$1.066 billion (2005 est.)
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7% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
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$38,200 (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$27,900 (2000 est.)
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agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
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12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)
country comparison to the world: 207
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agriculture: negligible
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001)
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3% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
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NA%
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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revenues: $455.1 million
expenditures: $423.6 million (2005 est.)
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15.7% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
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2.9% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 35
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none
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tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
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NA%
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146 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
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146 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
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24,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
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0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
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25,610 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 172
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
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$271 million (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
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(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
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$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
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fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
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$NA
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Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar - 0.4993 (2007), 0.5434 (2006), 0.5504 (2005), 0.5462 (2004), 0.6125 (2003)
note: the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound
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Communications ::Gibraltar
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24,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 185
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18,400 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 207
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general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
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AM 1, FM 5, shortwave 0 (1998)
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1 (plus 3 repeaters) (1997)
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.gi
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1,955 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 149
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6,500 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 202
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Transportation ::Gibraltar
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1 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 231
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total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 29 km
country comparison to the world: 216
paved: 29 km (2007)
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total: 240
country comparison to the world: 32
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 125, chemical tanker 51, container 43, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 225 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, Finland 3, Germany 129, Greece 6, Iceland 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 21, Norway 33, Sweden 13, UAE 3, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 7 (Liberia 5, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2008)
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Gibraltar
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Military ::Gibraltar
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Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)
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males age 16-49: 6,308 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 5,234
females age 16-49: 5,242 (2009 est.)
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male: 186
female: 179 (2009 est.)
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defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
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Transnational Issues ::Gibraltar
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in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
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The online Factbook is updated bi-weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
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