Skip to content. | Skip to navigation

 
Central Intelligence Agency
The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence
CIA - The World Factbook The World Factbook Home
CIA - The World Factbook
Africa :: Ghana
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Ghana
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Ghana
Click flag or map to enlarge Opens in New Window
 
Map of Ghana
Click map to enlarge Opens in New Window
No Photos available for Ghana
 
no photos available of Ghana
Expand All | collapse All
Introduction ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009.
Back to Top
Geography ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8 00 N, 2 00 W
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 238,533 sq km
country comparison to the world: 81
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
slightly smaller than Oregon
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
539 km
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 17.54%
permanent crops: 9.22%
other: 73.24% (2005)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
310 sq km (2003)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
53.2 cu km (2001)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 0.98 cu km/yr (24%/10%/66%)
per capita: 44 cu m/yr (2000)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Back to Top
People ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
23,832,495
country comparison to the world: 47
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 37.3% (male 4,503,331/female 4,393,104)
15-64 years: 59.1% (male 7,039,696/female 7,042,208)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 393,364/female 460,792) (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 20.7 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.882% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28.58 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
9.24 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 50% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 51.09 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 50
male: 55.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 59.85 years
country comparison to the world: 184
male: 58.98 years
female: 60.75 years (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.68 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.9% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
260,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
21,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other 36.1% (includes English (official)) (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 66.4%
female: 49.8% (2000 census)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.4% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 54
Back to Top
Government ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
constitutional democracy
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6 March 1957 (from the UK)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
approved 28 April 1992
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John Evans Atta MILLS (since 7 January 2009); Vice President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 7 January 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2008 with a second round held 28 December 2008 (next to be held 7 December 2012)
election results: John Evans Atta MILLS elected president in run-off election; percent of vote - John Evans Atta MILLS 50.23%, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO 49.77%
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
unicameral Parliament (230 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2008 (next to be held 7 December 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 114, NPP 107, PNC 2, CPP 1, independent 4, other 2
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Supreme Court
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Convention People's Party or CPP [Ladi NYLANDER]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTEY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles WAYO]
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Christian Aid (water rights); Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform); National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights); Oxfam (water rights); Public Citizen (water rights); Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform); Third World Network (education reform)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF (associate member), OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Adolphus K. ARTHUR
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald G. TEITELBAUM
embassy: 24 4th Circular Rd. Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 741-000
FAX: [233] (21) 741-389
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
Back to Top
Economy ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorest countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold and cocoa production, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and employs about 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. Thematic priorities under its current Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy, which also provides the framework for development partner assistance, are: macroeconomic stability; private sector competitiveness; human resource development; and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with high prices for gold and cocoa helped sustain GDP growth in 2008.
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$34.2 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
$31.87 billion (2007 est.)
$30.14 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$16.12 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
5.7% (2007 est.)
6.3% (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1,500 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
$1,400 (2007 est.)
$1,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 37.3%
industry: 25.3%
services: 37.5% (2006 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
10.12 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 56%
industry: 15%
services: 29% (2005 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
11% (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28.5% (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
39.4 (2005-06)
country comparison to the world: 65
40.7 (1999)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
32.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $5.256 billion
expenditures: $7.492 billion (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
62.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
58.5% of GDP (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
16.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
10.7% (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 18
13.5% (31 December 2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 92
$2.179 billion (31 December 2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 101
$2.174 billion (31 December 2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$4.179 billion (31 December 2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$3.394 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 95
$2.38 billion (31 December 2007)
$3.233 billion (31 December 2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6.746 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.702 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
249 million kWh (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
435 million kWh (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7,399 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
56,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4,843 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
45,380 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
15 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 173
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$-2.62 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
$-1.717 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$5.245 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
$4.172 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticulture
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Netherlands 15.3%, UK 9.1%, France 6.5%, US 5.8% (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$10.24 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$8.066 billion (2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
China 15.9%, Nigeria 15.8%, US 5.9%, France 4.7%, UK 4.7% (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$2 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
$2.831 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$5.419 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
$4.891 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$NA
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
cedis (GHC) per US dollar - 1.1 (2008 est.), 0.95 (2007), 9,174.8 (2006), 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004)
note: in 2007 Ghana revalued its currency with 10,000 old cedis equal to 1 new cedis
Back to Top
Communications ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
143,900 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 134
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
11.57 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
general assessment: outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of 50 per 100 persons and rising
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
AM 0, FM 86, shortwave 3 (2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7 (2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
.gh
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
23,850 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 97
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
997,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 91
Back to Top
Transportation ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
11 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 155
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
oil 5 km; refined products 309 km (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 947 km
country comparison to the world: 91
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 62,221 km
country comparison to the world: 72
paved: 9,955 km
unpaved: 52,266 km (2006)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1,293 km
country comparison to the world: 58
note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 4
country comparison to the world: 136
by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Tema
Back to Top
Military ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Ghanaian Army, Ghanaian Navy, Ghanaian Air Force (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 5,802,096
females age 16-49: 5,729,939 (2008 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 3,849,113
females age 16-49: 3,840,083 (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 272,954
female: 266,186 (2009 est.)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
Back to Top
Transnational Issues ::Ghana
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
refugees (country of origin): 35,653 (Liberia); 8,517 (Togo) (2007)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
Back to Top
Expand All | collapse All
The online Factbook is updated bi-weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.