Africa :: Tanzania
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Tanzania
Location of Tanzania
 
Map of Tanzania
Introduction ::Tanzania
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
Geography ::Tanzania
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
6 00 S, 35 00 E
total: 947,300 sq km
country comparison to the world: 31
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
slightly larger than twice the size of California
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
1,424 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
arable land: 4.23%
permanent crops: 1.16%
other: 94.61% (2005)
1,840 sq km (2003)
91 cu km (2001)
total: 5.18 cu km/yr (10%/0%/89%)
per capita: 135 cu m/yr (2000)
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
People ::Tanzania
41,048,532
country comparison to the world: 30
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)
0-14 years: 43% (male 8,853,529/female 8,805,810)
15-64 years: 54.1% (male 10,956,133/female 11,255,868)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 513,959/female 663,233) (2009 est.)
total: 18 years
male: 17.8 years
female: 18.3 years (2009 est.)
2.04% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
34.29 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
12.59 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
urban population: 25% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 69.28 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 26
male: 76.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 62.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 52.01 years
country comparison to the world: 203
male: 50.56 years
female: 53.51 years (2009 est.)
4.46 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
6.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
1.4 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
96,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 69.4%
male: 77.5%
female: 62.2% (2002 census)
2.2% of GDP (1999)
country comparison to the world: 164
Government ::Tanzania
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
republic
name: Dar es Salaam
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis
26 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001)
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was reelected to that office on 30 October 2005
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 80.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 11.7%, Freeman MBOWE 5.9%
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats; 232 members elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; to serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 14 December 2005 (next to be held in December 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 206, CUF 19, CHADEMA 5, other 2, women appointed by the president 37, Zanzibar representatives 5 Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 30, CUF 19; 1 seat was nullified with a rerun to take place soon
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA]; Democratic Party [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered); Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREME]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF; Free Zanzibar; Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
ACP, AfDB, AU, C, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-6, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
chief of mission: Ambassador Ombeni Yohana SEFUE
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
chief of mission: Ambassador Mark GREEN
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 266-8001
FAX: [255] (22) 266-8238, 266-8373
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
Economy ::Tanzania
Tanzania is in the bottom ten percent of the world's economies in terms of per capita income. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, which accounts for more than 40% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry traditionally featured the processing of agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's out-of-date economic infrastructure and to alleviate poverty. Long-term growth through 2005 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals led by gold. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported real GDP growth of 7.1% in 2008.
$54.25 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$50.65 billion (2007 est.)
$47.27 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
$20.72 billion (2008 est.)
7.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
7.1% (2007 est.)
6.7% (2006 est.)
$1,300 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
$1,300 (2007 est.)
$1,200 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
agriculture: 27.1%
industry: 22.5%
services: 50.4% (2008 est.)
21.06 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)
NA%
36% (2002 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 26.9% (2000)
34.6 (2000)
country comparison to the world: 89
38.2 (1993)
22.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
revenues: $4.099 billion
expenditures: $4.517 billion (2008 est.)
23.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
5% of GDP (2004 est.)
10.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
7% (2007 est.)
15.99% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 11
16.4% (31 December 2007)
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 36
16.03% (31 December 2007)
$2.464 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 90
$2.285 billion (31 December 2007)
$3.362 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 92
$3.212 billion (31 December 2007)
$3.297 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 110
$2.501 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
$NA (31 December 2007)
$541.1 million (31 December 2006)
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); diamond, gold, and iron mining, salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
9.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
3.786 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
3.182 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
0 kWh (2008 est.)
200 million kWh (2007 est.)
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
32,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
28,070 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
560.7 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
560.7 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 98
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$-2.695 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
$-1.856 billion (2007 est.)
$2.413 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
$2.227 billion (2007 est.)
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
India 10.1%, China 7.2%, Japan 6.4%, UAE 5.6%, Netherlands 5.4%, Germany 5% (2008)
$6.259 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$4.861 billion (2007 est.)
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
China 14.5%, South Africa 7.3%, Kenya 7.2%, India 6.3%, UAE 6.1% (2008)
$2.915 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$2.91 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$5.353 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
$4.382 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$NA
$NA
Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 1,178.1 (2008 est.), 1,255 (2007), 1,251.9 (2006), 1,128.93 (2005), 1,089.33 (2004)
Communications ::Tanzania
179,849 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 126
14.723 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 46
general assessment: telecommunications services are inadequate; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: country code - 255; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean)
AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
3 (1999)
.tz
24,724 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 96
520,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 106
Transportation ::Tanzania
125 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 47
total: 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2009)
total: 116
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 34 (2009)
gas 253 km; oil 888 km; refined products 8 km (2008)
total: 3,689 km
country comparison to the world: 46
narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,720 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
total: 78,891 km
country comparison to the world: 60
paved: 6,808 km
unpaved: 72,083 km (2003)
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; rivers not navigable (2007)
total: 9
country comparison to the world: 117
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 4
registered in other countries: 1 (Honduras 1) (2008)
Dar es Salaam
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Indian Ocean are high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen
Military ::Tanzania
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
males age 16-49: 9,108,177 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 5,473,552
females age 16-49: 5,493,188 (2009 est.)
male: 487,742
female: 489,462 (2009 est.)
0.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
Transnational Issues ::Tanzania
Tanzania still hosts more than a half-million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
refugees (country of origin): 352,640 (Burundi); 127,973 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2007)
targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia.