East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Philippines
Location of Philippines
 
Map of Philippines
Introduction ::Philippines
The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another.
Geography ::Philippines
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
13 00 N, 122 00 E
total: 300,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 72
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
slightly larger than Arizona
0 km
36,289 km
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
15,500 sq km (2003)
479 cu km (1999)
total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
People ::Philippines
97,976,603 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
0-14 years: 35.2% (male 17,606,352/female 16,911,376)
15-64 years: 60.6% (male 29,679,327/female 29,737,919)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,744,248/female 2,297,381) (2009 est.)
total: 22.5 years
male: 22 years
female: 23 years (2009 est.)
1.957% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
26.01 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
5.1 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
-1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
urban population: 65% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 20.56 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 104
male: 23.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 71.09 years
country comparison to the world: 133
male: 68.17 years
female: 74.15 years (2009 est.)
3.27 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
8,300 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)
total: 12 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2006)
2.5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 158
Government ::Philippines
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
republic
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)
12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001); Vice President (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO (since 10 May 2004); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president; percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE 37%, three others 23%
bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has 240 seats including 218 members representing districts and 22 sectoral party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of 1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250 members)
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 4, LP 4, Nacionalista 3, NPC 2, PDP-Laban 2, PMP 2, Kampi 1, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 3; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 92, Kampi 54, NPC 25, LP 21, Party-list 22, independents 3, others 26; there are 238 rather than 240 sitting representatives because two died in office
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi [Luis VILLAFUERTE]; Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Prospero NOGRALES]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]; United Opposition or UNO [Jejomar BINAY]
note: Lakas-CMD and Kampi merged on 29 May 2009 to form Lakas-Kampi CMD
ABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Anna Theresia BARAQUIEL]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ernesto PABLO and Edgar VALDEZ]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE, Carissa COSCOLLUELLA, and William TIENG]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Liza MAZA and Luzviminda ILAGAN]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)
chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice) and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top
Economy ::Philippines
Economic growth has averaged 5% since President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service ratios, and increased spending on infrastructure and social services bolstered optimism over Philippine economic prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook improved significantly in recent years, the economy still faces several long term challenges. The Philippines must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty. The Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal distribution of income. The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades in 2007 with real GDP growth exceeding 7%, but growth slowed to 3.8% in 2008 as a result of the world financial crisis. High government spending, a relatively small trade sector, a resilient service sector, and large remittances from the four- to five-million Filipinos who work abroad have helped cushion the economy from the current financial crisis.
$317.5 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$305.8 billion (2007 est.)
$285.6 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
$168.6 billion (2008 est.)
3.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
7.1% (2007 est.)
5.3% (2006 est.)
$3,300 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
$3,200 (2007 est.)
$3,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
agriculture: 14.7%
industry: 31.6%
services: 53.7% (2008 est.)
36.81 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
agriculture: 35%
industry: 15%
services: 50% (2008 est.)
7.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
7.3% (2007 est.)
30% (2003 est.)
lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
45.8 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 40
46.6 (2003)
14.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
revenues: $27.05 billion
expenditures: $28.58 billion (2008 est.)
56.3% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
74.2% of GDP (September 2004 est.)
9.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
2.8% (2007 est.)
6% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 113
4.28% (31 December 2007)
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 97
8.69% (31 December 2007)
$22.53 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 41
$21.27 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 30
$65.85 billion (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 52
$65.66 billion (31 December 2007)
$52.1 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 47
$103.2 billion (31 December 2007)
$68.38 billion (31 December 2006)
sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
56.57 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
48.96 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
25,120 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
320,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
36,720 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
342,200 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
138.5 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
2.94 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 127
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$4.227 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$7.119 billion (2007 est.)
$48.2 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$49.51 billion (2007 est.)
semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
China 25.7%, US 12.7%, Japan 12.4%, Hong Kong 8.7%, Singapore 6.9%, Malaysia 4.4% (2008)
$60.78 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$57.9 billion (2007 est.)
electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Japan 14.2%, US 11.8%, China 11.4%, Singapore 10.3%, Saudi Arabia 6%, South Korea 4.8%, Thailand 4.7% (2008)
$37.55 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$33.75 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$61.41 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$61.78 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$21.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
$19.88 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$5.821 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
$5.584 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 44.439 (2008 est.), 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006), 55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004)
Communications ::Philippines
3.905 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 40
68.102 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 14
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density about 80 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2008)
AM 381, FM 628, shortwave 4 (2007)
250 (plus 1,501 CATV networks) (2007)
.ph
283,607 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 55
5.618 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 42
Transportation ::Philippines
254 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 25
total: 85
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 28
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 10 (2009)
total: 169
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 99 (2009)
2 (2009)
oil 107 km; refined products 112 km (2008)
total: 897 km
country comparison to the world: 95
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2008)
total: 201,910 km
country comparison to the world: 25
paved: 21,677 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2008)
3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 31
total: 391
country comparison to the world: 27
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 125, carrier 16, chemical tanker 17, container 6, liquefied gas 5, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 161 (Bermuda 34, China 4, Greece 4, Hong Kong 1, Japan 81, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 23, Norway 10, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1, Indonesia 1, Panama 7) (2008)
Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
Military ::Philippines
Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2009)
18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2007)
males age 16-49: 23,547,252
females age 16-49: 23,177,487 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 19,169,298
females age 16-49: 20,636,853 (2009 est.)
male: 1,023,431
female: 986,434 (2009 est.)
0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
Transnational Issues ::Philippines
Philippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)
domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited