Europe :: Norway
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Norway
Location of Norway
 
Map of Norway
Introduction ::Norway
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994. Conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. The current focus is on containing spending on the extensive welfare system and planning for the time when petroleum reserves are depleted. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU.
Geography ::Norway
Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
62 00 N, 10 00 E
total: 323,802 sq km
country comparison to the world: 67
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km
slightly larger than New Mexico
total: 2,542 km
border countries: Finland 727 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 196 km
25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
lowest point: Norwegian Sea 0 m
highest point: Galdhopiggen 2,469 m
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
arable land: 2.7%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.3% (2005)
1,270 sq km (2003)
381.4 cu km (2005)
total: 2.4 cu km/yr (23%/67%/10%)
per capita: 519 cu m/yr (1996)
rockslides, avalanches
water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
People ::Norway
4,660,539 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
0-14 years: 18.5% (male 441,508/female 422,050)
15-64 years: 66.2% (male 1,564,482/female 1,522,519)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 305,120/female 404,860) (2009 est.)
total: 39.4 years
male: 38.5 years
female: 40.2 years (2009 est.)
0.341% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
10.99 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
9.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
1.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
urban population: 77% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 3.58 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 214
male: 3.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 79.95 years
country comparison to the world: 24
male: 77.29 years
female: 82.74 years (2009 est.)
1.78 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
3,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 estimate)
Church of Norway 85.7%, Pentecostal 1%, Roman Catholic 1%, other Christian 2.4%, Muslim 1.8%, other 8.1% (2004)
Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities; note - Sami is official in six municipalities
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2006)
7.2% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 20
Government ::Norway
conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
constitutional monarchy
name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
17 May 1814; amended many times
mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)
head of government: Prime Minister Jens STOLTENBERG (since 17 October 2005)
cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch with the approval of parliament
elections: the monarch is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
modified unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members are elected by popular vote by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 14 September 2009 (next to be held in September 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor Party 35.4%, Progress Party 22.9%, Conservative Party 17.2%, Socialist Left Party 6.2%, Center Party 6.2%, Christian People's Party 5.5%, Liberal Party 3.9%, other 2.7%; seats by party - Labor Party 64, Progress Party 41, Conservative Party 30, Socialist Left Party 11, Center Party 11, Christian People's Party 10, Liberal Party 2
note: for certain purposes, the parliament divides itself into two chambers and elects one-fourth of its membership in the Lagting and three-fourths of its membership in the Odelsting
Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (justices appointed by the monarch)
Center Party [Liv Signe NAVARSETE]; Christian People's Party [Dagfinn HOYBRATEN]; Conservative Party [Erna SOLBERG]; Labor Party [Jens STOLTENBERG]; Liberal Party [Lars SPONHEIM]; Progress Party [Siv JENSEN]; Socialist Left Party [Kristin HALVORSEN]
Norwegian Aid Committee or NORWAC; Norwegian Association of the Disabled; Pure Salmon Campaign; The Consumer Council (consumer advocacy group)
other: environmental groups; media; reform movements
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMIS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
chief of mission: Ambassador Wegger C. STROMMEN
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general: Houston, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco
chief of mission: Ambassador Benson K. WHITNEY
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] (22) 44 85 50
FAX: [47] (22) 44 33 63, 56 27 51
red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors recall Norway's past political unions with Denmark (red and white) and Sweden (blue)
Economy ::Norway
The Norwegian economy is a prosperous bastion of welfare capitalism, featuring a combination of free market activity and government intervention. The government controls key areas, such as the vital petroleum sector, through large-scale state enterprises. The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on the petroleum sector, which accounts for nearly half of exports and over 30% of state revenue. Norway is the world's third-largest gas exporter; its position as an oil exporter has slipped to seventh-largest as production has begun to decline. Norway opted to stay out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves almost all state revenue from the petroleum sector in a sovereign wealth fund. After lackluster growth of less than 1.5% in 2002-03, GDP growth picked up to 2.5-6.2% in 2004-07, partly due to higher oil prices. Growth fell to 2.6% in 2008 as a result of the slowing world economy and the drop in oil prices.
$275.4 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$268.4 billion (2007 est.)
$253.2 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
$456.2 billion (2008 est.)
2.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
6% (2007 est.)
4.4% (2006 est.)
$59,300 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$58,000 (2007 est.)
$54,900 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
agriculture: 2%
industry: 44.2%
services: 53.8% (2008 est.)
2.591 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
agriculture: 2.9%
industry: 21.1%
services: 76% (2008)
2.6% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
2.5% (2007 est.)
NA%
lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23.4% (2000)
25 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 131
25.8 (1995)
20.8% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
revenues: $266.2 billion
expenditures: $178.1 billion (2008 est.)
44.2% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
33.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
3.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
0.8% (2007 est.)
4% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 71
6.25% (31 December 2007)
3.5% (1st quarter 2009)
country comparison to the world: 141
3.5% (1st quarter 2009)
$NA
$NA
$NA
$142.5 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 27
$357.4 billion (31 December 2007)
$281.1 billion (31 December 2006)
barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
-0.2% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
142.7 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
128.8 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
17.29 billion kWh (2008 est.)
3.414 billion kWh (2008 est.)
2.466 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
220,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
2.383 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
104,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
6.68 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
99.2 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
3.97 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
95.23 billion cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 3
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
2.313 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$83.5 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$60.46 billion (2007 est.)
$168.8 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$137.3 billion (2007 est.)
petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
UK 27%, Germany 12.8%, Netherlands 10.4%, France 9.4%, Sweden 6.5%, US 4.5% (2008)
$85.99 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$77.03 billion (2007 est.)
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Sweden 14.4%, Germany 13.4%, Denmark 6.9%, China 6.4%, UK 5.9%, US 5.4%, Netherlands 4.2% (2008)
$50.95 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$60.84 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$558.5 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 19
$540.3 billion (31 December 2007)
note: Norway is a net external creditor
$91.49 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$93.69 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$160.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$133.3 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar - 5.6361 (2008), 5.86 (2007), 6.418 (2006), 6.445 (2005), 6.7327 (2004)
Communications ::Norway
1.928 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
5.287 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 85
general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe
domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; moreover, the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of cellular-mobile systems instead of fixed-wire systems
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden) (1999)
AM 5, FM 160, shortwave 1 (2008)
69 (2008)
.no
3.198 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 25
3.935 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 52
Transportation ::Norway
98 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 63
total: 67
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 25 (2009)
total: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 25 (2009)
1 (2009)
condensate 31 km; gas 64 km (2008)
total: 4,114 km
country comparison to the world: 40
standard gauge: 4,114 km 1.435-m gauge (2,552 km electrified) (2009)
total: 92,946 km
country comparison to the world: 50
paved: 72,033 km (includes 664 km of expressways)
unpaved: 20,913 km (2007)
1,577 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
total: 688
country comparison to the world: 15
by type: bulk carrier 46, cargo 141, carrier 3, chemical tanker 137, combination ore/oil 12, container 4, liquefied gas 65, passenger/cargo 117, petroleum tanker 85, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 13, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 50
foreign-owned: 199 (Canada 10, Chile 2, China 36, Denmark 25, Estonia 1, Finland 1, France 3, Germany 1, Greece 3, Hong Kong 20, Iceland 3, Italy 4, Japan 29, Lithuania 1, Malaysia 1, Monaco 5, Poland 3, Saudi Arabia 3, Singapore 1, Sweden 34, UK 5, US 8)
registered in other countries: 923 (Antigua and Barbuda 8, Australia 1, Bahamas 189, Barbados 38, Belize 3, Bermuda 5, Brazil 5, Canada 3, Cayman Islands 1, China 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 5, Cyprus 18, Denmark 3, Dominica 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 4, Finland 3, France 5, Gibraltar 33, Hong Kong 40, Indonesia 1, Isle of Man 20, Italy 2, South Korea 2, Liberia 40, Libya 1, Malta 93, Marshall Islands 66, Netherlands 12, Netherlands Antilles 3, Panama 89, Philippines 10, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13, Singapore 143, Spain 5, Sweden 7, Tuvalu 1, UK 31, US 9, unknown 4) (2008)
Bergen, Borg Havn, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Oslo, Sture
Military ::Norway
Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2007)
18-44 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 12-month service obligation, in practice shortened to 8 to 9 months; although all males between ages of 18 and 44 are liable for service, in practice they are seldom called to duty after age 30; reserve obligation to age 35-60; 16 years of age for volunteers to the Home Guard, who serve 6-month duty tours (2009)
males age 16-49: 1,078,181
females age 16-49: 1,046,550 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 888,219
females age 16-49: 863,255 (2009 est.)
male: 31,980
female: 30,543 (2009 est.)
1.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
Transnational Issues ::Norway
Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); despite dialogue, Russia and Norway continue to dispute their maritime limits in the Barents Sea and Russia's fishing rights beyond Svalbard's territorial limits within the Svalbard Treaty zone