Africa :: Angola
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Angola
Location of Angola
 
Map of Angola
Introduction ::Angola
Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again by 1996. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and strengthened the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS held legislative elections in September 2008, and announced plans to hold presidential elections in 2009.
Geography ::Angola
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
12 30 S, 18 30 E
total: 1,246,700 sq km
country comparison to the world: 23
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
1,600 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
arable land: 2.65%
permanent crops: 0.23%
other: 97.12% (2005)
800 sq km (2003)
184 cu km (1987)
total: 0.35 cu km/yr (23%/17%/60%)
per capita: 22 cu m/yr (2000)
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
People ::Angola
12,799,293 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
0-14 years: 43.5% (male 2,812,359/female 2,759,047)
15-64 years: 53.7% (male 3,496,726/female 3,382,440)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 153,678/female 195,043) (2009 est.)
total: 18 years
male: 18 years
female: 18 years (2009 est.)
2.095% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
43.69 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
24.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
1.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
urban population: 57% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 180.21 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 1
male: 192.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 167.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 38.2 years
country comparison to the world: 223
male: 37.24 years
female: 39.22 years (2009 est.)
6.12 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
2.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
190,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
11,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2009)
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.4%
male: 82.9%
female: 54.2% (2001 est.)
2.4% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 159
Government ::Angola
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
republic; multiparty presidential regime
name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
adopted by People's Assembly 25 August 1992
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Antonio Paulo KASSOMA was named prime minister by MPLA on 26 September 2008
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS was selected by the party to take over after the death of former President Augustino NETO(1979) under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next were to be held in September 2009 but have been postponed)
election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was never held leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5-6 September 2008 (next to be held in September 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 81.6%, UNITA 10.4%, PRS 3.2%, ND 1.2%, FNLA 1.1%, other 2.5%; seats by party - MPLA 191, UNITA 16, PRS 8, FNLA 3, ND 2
Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Ngola KABANGU]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party in power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]
note: nine other parties participated in the legislative election in September but won no seats
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006
ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITE
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
chief of mission: Ambassador Dan MOZENA
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants
Economy ::Angola
Angola's high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, which has taken advantage of high international oil prices. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 15% per year from 2004 to 2007. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country's infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country's food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit, since increased to $7 billion, from China to rebuild Angola's public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects were completed in 2006. Angola also has large credit lines from Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation. This policy became more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings; it has significantly reduced inflation. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to under 13% in 2008, the stabilization policy has put pressure on international net liquidity. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and in late 2007 was assigned a production quota of 1.9 million barrels a day, somewhat less than the 2-2.5 million bbl Angola's government had wanted. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement government reforms, increase transparency, and reduce corruption. The government has rejected a formal IMF monitored program, although it continues Article IV consultations and ad hoc cooperation. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, and the negative effects of large inflows of foreign exchange, are major challenges facing Angola.
$110.3 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$97.4 billion (2007 est.)
$83.46 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
$83.38 billion (2008 est.)
13.2% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
16.7% (2007 est.)
19.6% (2006 est.)
$8,800 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
$7,900 (2007 est.)
$7,000 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
agriculture: 9.2%
industry: 65.8%
services: 24.6% (2008 est.)
7.569 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
NA
40.5% (2006 est.)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
9% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
revenues: $28.99 billion
expenditures: $21.44 billion (2008 est.)
8.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
12% of GDP (2007 est.)
12% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
12.2% (2007 est.)
19.57% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 8
19.57% (31 December 2007)
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 25
17.7% (31 December 2007)
$8.446 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 75
$4.153 billion (31 December 2007)
$10.41 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 68
$7.216 billion (31 December 2007)
$7.893 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 125
$1.166 billion (31 December 2007)
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
14.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
3.722 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
3.173 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
2.015 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
64,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
1.407 million bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
28,090 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
9.04 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
680 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
680 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 204
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
269.8 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$17.84 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$9.402 billion (2007 est.)
$67.2 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$44.4 billion (2007 est.)
crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
China 32.7%, US 26.7%, South Africa 9.6%, France 5.5% (2008)
$17.08 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$13.66 billion (2007 est.)
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Portugal 19.3%, China 14.7%, US 12.3%, Brazil 8.3%, South Africa 5.4%, France 4.3% (2008)
$18.38 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$11.2 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$7.617 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
$8.357 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$16.36 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$14.51 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
$227 million (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
kwanza (AOA) per US dollar - 75.023 (2008 est.), 76.6 (2007), 80.4 (2006), 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004)
Communications ::Angola
114,300 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 141
6.773 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 74
general assessment: system inadequate; fewer than one fixed-line per 100 persons; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeded 50 telephones per 100 persons in 2008
domestic: state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed-lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network; Angola Telecom established mobile-cellular service in Luanda in 1993 and the network has been extended to larger towns; a privately-owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2008)
AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)
6 (2000)
.ao
3,508 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 139
550,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 105
Transportation ::Angola
192 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 32
total: 30
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2009)
total: 162
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 32
914 to 1,523 m: 78
under 914 m: 46 (2009)
gas 2 km; oil 87 km (2008)
total: 2,764 km
country comparison to the world: 61
narrow gauge: 2,641 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2008)
total: 51,429 km
country comparison to the world: 78
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)
1,300 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 55
total: 6
country comparison to the world: 128
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 6 (Bahamas 6) (2008)
Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
Military ::Angola
Angolan Armed Forces (FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA) (2009)
22-24 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years; Angolan citizenship required (2009)
males age 16-49: 2,856,492
females age 16-49: 2,755,864 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 1,467,833
females age 16-49: 1,411,468 (2009 est.)
male: 146,738
female: 143,478 (2009 est.)
5.7% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 13
Transnational Issues ::Angola
Cabindan separatists continue to return to the Angolan exclave from exile in neighboring states and Europe since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement
refugees (country of origin): 12,615 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2007)
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa