Europe :: Andorra
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Andorra
Location of Andorra
Map of Andorra
Introduction ::Andorra
For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Geography ::Andorra
Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain
42 30 N, 1 30 E
total: 468 sq km
country comparison to the world: 195
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
0 km (landlocked)
none (landlocked)
temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)
deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
People ::Andorra
83,888 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
0-14 years: 15.5% (male 6,710/female 6,305)
15-64 years: 72.2% (male 31,604/female 28,925)
65 years and over: 12.3% (male 5,113/female 5,231) (2009 est.)
total: 39.4 years
male: 39.7 years
female: 39.1 years (2009 est.)
1.135% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
10.35 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
5.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
6.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
urban population: 89% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: -0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 3.76 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 212
male: 3.78 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 82.51 years
country comparison to the world: 2
male: 80.33 years
female: 84.84 years (2009 est.)
1.33 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
Roman Catholic (predominant)
Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)
2.3% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 162
Government ::Andorra
conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat d'Andorra
local short form: Andorra
parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces' representatives
name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel)
Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in 1991; approved by referendum 14 March 1993; effective 28 April 1993
based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan-Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since 30 July 2003)
head of government: Executive Council President Jaume BARTUMEU Cassany (since 5 June 2009)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 26 April 2009 (next to be held in April-May 2013)
election results: Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA
unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 April 2009 (next to be held in March-April 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - PS 45.03%, Reformist Coaliton 32.34%, Andorra for Change 18.86%, other 3.77%; seats by party - PS 14, Reformist Coalition 11, Andorra for Change 3
Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia d'Andorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Andorra for Change [Juan Eusebio NOMEN CALVET]; New Center [Vicenc MATEU] (formerly Andorran Democratic Center Party); Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Joan Gabriel i ESTANY] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Reformist Coalition (includes the Liberal Party and New Center) [Joan Gabriel i ESTANY]; Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Narcis CASAL FONSDEVIELA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (93) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (93) 280-6175
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red, with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; the flag combines the blue and red French colors with the red and yellow of Spain to show Franco-Spanish protection
note: similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Economy ::Andorra
Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial "tax haven" status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
$3.66 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 167
$3.588 billion (2006)
$2.77 billion (2005)
2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
3.5% (2005 est.)
$42,500 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 15
$38,800 (2005)
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
42,230 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 187
agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 20.8%
services: 79% (2007)
0% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 1
0% (2006)
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
revenues: $496.9 million
expenditures: $496.8 million (2007)
3.9% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 59
3.2% (2005)
small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture
NA kWh
NA kWh
NA kWh
NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
$117.1 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 190
$148.7 million (2005)
tobacco products, furniture
$1.789 billion (2007)
country comparison to the world: 154
$1.879 billion (2005)
consumer goods, food, electricity
euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008 est.), 0.7306 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004)
Communications ::Andorra
37,400 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 173
64,200 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 189
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
AM 0, FM 1, shortwave 0 (easy access to radio and television broadcasts originating in France and Spain) (2007)
1 (2007)
23,421 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 98
59,100 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 168
Transportation ::Andorra
total: 270 km (1994)
country comparison to the world: 203
Military ::Andorra
no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra (2008)
males age 16-49: 18,685 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 18,617
females age 16-49: 17,613 (2009 est.)
male: 402
female: 373 (2009 est.)
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Transnational Issues ::Andorra