Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda
Location of Antigua and Barbuda
 
Map of Antigua and Barbuda
Introduction ::Antigua and Barbuda
The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
Geography ::Antigua and Barbuda
Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
17 03 N, 61 48 W
total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
country comparison to the world: 199
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
0 km
153 km
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)
NA
0.1 cu km (2000)
total: 0.005 cu km/yr (60%/20%/20%)
per capita: 63 cu m/yr (1990)
hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
People ::Antigua and Barbuda
85,632 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
0-14 years: 26.8% (male 11,660/female 11,303)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 26,597/female 30,414)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,456/female 3,202) (2009 est.)
total: 29.7 years
male: 28.2 years
female: 31.1 years (2009 est.)
1.303% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
16.59 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
2.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
urban population: 30% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
total: 16.25 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 120
male: 18.76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 13.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
total population: 74.76 years
country comparison to the world: 87
male: 72.81 years
female: 76.81 years (2009 est.)
2.07 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
NA
NA
NA
noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
English (official), local dialects
definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA
female: NA (2003 est.)
3.9% of GDP (2002)
country comparison to the world: 106
Government ::Antigua and Barbuda
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
1 November 1981 (from the UK)
Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
1 November 1981
based on English common law
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court consisting of a High Court of Justice and a Court of Appeal (based in Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court are residents of the islands and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); Magistrates' Courts; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
Economy ::Antigua and Barbuda
Antigua has a relatively high GDP per capita in comparison to most other Caribbean nations. The economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006 driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup. Growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. Since taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government has adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, and has been successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from 120% to about 90%.
$1.657 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
$1.59 billion (2007 est.)
$1.488 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
$1.256 billion (2008 est.)
4.2% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
6.9% (2007 est.)
12.4% (2006 est.)
$19,600 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$19,100 (2007 est.)
$18,100 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 22%
services: 74.3% (2002 est.)
30,000 (1991)
country comparison to the world: 197
agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
11% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
NA%
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million (2000 est.)
1.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
6.5% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
6.5% (31 December 2007)
NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 80
10.44% (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 149
$294.8 million (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
$902 million (31 December 2007)
$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 132
$1.002 billion (31 December 2007)
cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
NA%
110 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
102.3 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 kWh (2008 est.)
0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
5,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
219 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
4,690 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 207
0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
$-211 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$84.3 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
$522.8 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
$359.8 million (June 2006)
country comparison to the world: 169
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2007), 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003)
note: fixed rate since 1976
Communications ::Antigua and Barbuda
38,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 171
136,600 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 177
general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe (2007)
AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)
2 (1997)
.ag
7,421 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 127
65,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 166
Transportation ::Antigua and Barbuda
3 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 190
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
total: 1,165 km
country comparison to the world: 181
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
total: 1,146
country comparison to the world: 7
by type: barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 50, cargo 651, carrier 4, chemical tanker 5, container 392, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 20
foreign-owned: 1,113 (Australia 1, Colombia 2, Cyprus 18, Denmark 19, Estonia 23, France 1, Germany 941, Greece 3, Iceland 12, Italy 1, Latvia 13, Lithuania 5, Netherlands 20, NZ 2, Norway 8, Poland 2, Russia 4, Slovenia 6, Sweden 1, Switzerland 8, Turkey 6, UK 9, US 8) (2008)
Saint John's
Military ::Antigua and Barbuda
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2009)
18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2008)
males age 16-49: 19,560
females age 16-49: 18,977 (2008 est.)
males age 16-49: 17,271
females age 16-49: 19,586 (2009 est.)
male: 744
female: 743 (2009 est.)
NA
Transnational Issues ::Antigua and Barbuda
none
considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center