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Africa :: Chad
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Chad
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Chad
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Map of Chad
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Introduction ::Chad
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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad, despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.
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Geography ::Chad
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Central Africa, south of Libya
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15 00 N, 19 00 E
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total: 1.284 million sq km
country comparison to the world: 21
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
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slightly more than three times the size of California
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total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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tropical in south, desert in north
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broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
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lowest point: Djourab Depression 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
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petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
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arable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)
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300 sq km (2003)
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43 cu km (1987)
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total: 0.23 cu km/yr (17%/0%/83%)
per capita: 24 cu m/yr (2000)
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hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
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inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
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landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
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People ::Chad
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10,329,208 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
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0-14 years: 46.7% (male 2,445,841/female 2,381,319)
15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,386,428/female 2,816,050)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 126,351/female 173,219) (2009 est.)
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total: 16.5 years
male: 15.3 years
female: 17.7 years (2009 est.)
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2.069% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
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40.86 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
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16.09 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
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-4.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
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urban population: 27% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.7% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 98.69 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 11
male: 104.72 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 92.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 47.7 years
country comparison to the world: 211
male: 46.67 years
female: 48.77 years (2009 est.)
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5.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
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3.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
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200,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
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14,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
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noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
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Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
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Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
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French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 25.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 12.8% (2000 est.)
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total: 6 years
male: 7 years
female: 4 years (2005)
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1.9% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 168
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Government ::Chad
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conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
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republic
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name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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18 regions (regions, singular - region); Batha, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
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11 August 1960 (from France)
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Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
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passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
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based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Youssof Saleh ABBAS (since 16 April 2008)
cabinet: Council of State, members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote to serve five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last held 3 May 2006 (next to be held by May 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 64.7%, Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE 15.1%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 7.8%, Mahamat ABDOULAYE 7.1%, Brahim KOULAMALLAH 5.3%; note - a June 2005 national referendum altered the constitution removing presidential term limits and permitting Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno to run for reelection
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unicameral National Assembly (155 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the 1996 constitution called for a Senate that has never been formed
elections: National Assembly - last held 21 April 2002 (next to be held by 2009); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 110, RDP 12, FAR 9, RNDP 5, UNDR 5, URD 3, other 11
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Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
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Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
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rebel groups
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ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Adam BECHIR
chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
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chief of mission: Ambassador Louis NIGRO
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 251-62-11, 251-70-09, 251-77-59
FAX: [235] 251-56-54
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three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
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Economy ::Chad
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Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and plan to build a refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
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$15.86 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
$15.99 billion (2007 est.)
$15.78 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$8.39 billion (2008 est.)
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-0.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
1.3% (2007 est.)
0.2% (2006 est.)
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$1,600 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
$1,600 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 20.5%
industry: 48%
services: 31.5% (2008 est.)
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4.293 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 83
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agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
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NA%
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80% (2001 est.)
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
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13.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
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revenues: $2.324 billion
expenditures: $1.91 billion (2008 est.)
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10.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
4% (2007 est.)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 82
5.25% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 42
15% (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 125
$874.5 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 164
$55.23 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 168
$82.81 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA
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cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
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oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
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2% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
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100 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
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93 million kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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127,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
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1,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
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157,900 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
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1,571 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
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1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 195
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
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$-805 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
$-737.8 million (2007 est.)
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$4.502 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$3.674 billion (2007 est.)
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oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
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US 90.7%, China 3.3%, Japan 2.2% (2008)
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$1.862 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
$1.541 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
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France 19.2%, Cameroon 16.2%, China 10.4%, US 8.5%, Germany 6.1%, Saudi Arabia 5.1%, Netherlands 4.4% (2008)
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$1.347 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
$964.4 million (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.6 billion (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
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$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
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$NA
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Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar - 447.81 (2008 est.), 480.1 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004)
note: since 1 January 1999, the Central African CFA franc (XAF) has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 CFA francs per euro; Central African CFA franc (XAF) coins and banknotes are not accepted in countries using West African CFA francs (XOF), and vice versa, even though the two currencies trade at par
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Communications ::Chad
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13,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 199
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1.809 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 124
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general assessment: primitive system with high costs and low telephone density; fixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of less than 20 per 100 persons
domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
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AM 2, FM 4, shortwave 5 (2001)
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1 (2001)
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.td
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5 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 225
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130,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 144
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Transportation ::Chad
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54 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 86
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total: 8
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2009)
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total: 46
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 11 (2009)
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oil 250 km (2008)
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total: 33,400 km
country comparison to the world: 95
paved: 267 km
unpaved: 33,133 km (2002)
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Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season (2008)
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Military ::Chad
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Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)
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20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
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males age 16-49: 1,906,545
females age 16-49: 2,258,758 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,103,006
females age 16-49: 1,315,620 (2009 est.)
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male: 121,080
female: 121,585 (2009 est.)
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4.2% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 27
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Transnational Issues ::Chad
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since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
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refugees (country of origin): 234,000 (Sudan); 54,200 (Central African Republic)
IDPs: 178,918 (2007)
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current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the majority of children are trafficked within Chad for involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, forced labor in petty commerce or the fishing industry, or for commercial sexual exploitation; to a lesser extent, Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herding; children may also be trafficked from Cameroon and the Central African Republic to Chad's oil producing regions for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Chad is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; Chad was destabilized during 2007 by civil conflict leading to a declared state of emergency in February 2008, and a steady influx of refugees fleeing Sudan and the Central African Republic; the government demonstrated insufficient overall efforts to combat trafficking; Chad has not ratified the 2000 UN TIP Protocol (2008)
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