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Central Asia :: Tajikistan
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Tajikistan
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Location of Tajikistan
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Introduction ::Tajikistan
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The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Sughd province. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.
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Geography ::Tajikistan
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Central Asia, west of China
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39 00 N, 71 00 E
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total: 143,100 sq km
country comparison to the world: 95
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km
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slightly smaller than Wisconsin
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total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
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Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
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lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
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hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
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arable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)
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7,220 sq km (2003)
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99.7 cu km (1997)
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total: 11.96 cu km/yr (4%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,837 cu m/yr (2000)
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earthquakes; floods
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inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
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People ::Tajikistan
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7,349,145 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
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0-14 years: 34.3% (male 1,282,681/female 1,238,607)
15-64 years: 62.1% (male 2,260,552/female 2,303,034)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 112,334/female 151,937) (2009 est.)
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total: 21.9 years
male: 21.5 years
female: 22.4 years (2009 est.)
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1.878% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
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26.9 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
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6.83 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
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-1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
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urban population: 26% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 41.03 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 64
male: 45.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 65.33 years
country comparison to the world: 166
male: 62.29 years
female: 68.52 years (2009 est.)
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2.99 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
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less than 0.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
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10,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
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fewer than 500 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
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degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2009)
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noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
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Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
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Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
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Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)
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total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 10 years (2006)
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3.4% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 132
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Government ::Tajikistan
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conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
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republic
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name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
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9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
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Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
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6 November 1994
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based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
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bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 25 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010); Assembly of Representatives 27 February and 13 March 2005 (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5
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Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
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Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV]; People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NARZIEV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
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splinter parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party: Democratic Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT); Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's SPT)
unregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
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ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
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chief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
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chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
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three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
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Economy ::Tajikistan
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Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, nearly half of the labor force works abroad, primarily in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. The exact number of labor migrants is unknown, but estimated at around 1 million. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, but this sector is burdened with debt and obsolete infrastructure. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, widespread unemployment, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam - built with Russian investment - and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. If finished according to Tajik plans, Rogun will be the world's tallest dam. Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. While, Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004, but dropped below 8% in 2005-08, as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register - mainly in the form of lower prices for key commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working in Russia, due to the declining economic conditions in that country.
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$13.16 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
$12.2 billion (2007 est.)
$11.31 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$5.135 billion (2008 est.)
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7.9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
7.8% (2007 est.)
7% (2006 est.)
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$1,800 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
$1,700 (2007 est.)
$1,600 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 22.7%
industry: 27.1%
services: 50.2% (2008 est.)
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2.1 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 118
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agriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
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2.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
2.4% (2007 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is higher
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60% (2007 est.)
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lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2007 est.)
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32.6 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 99
34.7 (1998)
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12% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
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revenues: $996.8 million
expenditures: $899.6 million (2008 est.)
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20.5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 206
13.1% (2007 est.)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 14
15% (31 December 2007)
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23.1% (31 December 2008)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 144
$329.2 million (31 December 2007)
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$544 million (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 144
$350.3 million (31 December 2007)
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$889 million (31 December 2008)
$NA (31 December 2007)
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$NA
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cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
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aluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
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-4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
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17.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
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17.8 billion kWh (2008)
country comparison to the world: 69
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1 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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4.361 billion kWh (2007 est.)
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238 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
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36,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
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348.9 bbl/day
country comparison to the world: 126
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10,100 bbl/day (2008)
country comparison to the world: 140
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12 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
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15.3 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
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515.3 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 106
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500 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
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5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
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$-783 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
$-495.1 million (2007 est.)
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$1.493 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$1.557 billion (2007 est.)
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aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
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Russia 15.7%, Turkey 13.8%, Italy 11.7%, Norway 11.5%, Uzbekistan 10.2%, Iran 9.8% (2008)
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$4.122 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
$3.115 billion (2007 est.)
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electricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
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China 26%, Russia 24.5%, Kazakhstan 10.6%, Uzbekistan 6.8%, Turkey 5.4% (2008)
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$257 million (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
$328 million (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.643 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$1.56 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$102 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$94.76 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$10.87 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
$8.022 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 3.4563 (2008 est.), 3.4418 (2007), 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004)
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Communications ::Tajikistan
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360,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 106
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3.5 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 99
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general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements
domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; mobile cellular use, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2008)
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16 (number of licensed stations with only about 10 broadcasting) (2009)
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24 (number of licensed stations with only about 15 active) (2009)
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.tj
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987 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 161
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600,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 103
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Transportation ::Tajikistan
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26 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 128
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total: 18
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2009)
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total: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (2009)
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gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2008)
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total: 680 km
country comparison to the world: 107
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
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total: 27,767 km (2000)
country comparison to the world: 100
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200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 99
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Military ::Tajikistan
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Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2008)
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18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2007)
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males age 16-49: 1,897,356
females age 16-49: 1,911,594 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,428,218
females age 16-49: 1,603,779 (2009 est.)
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male: 80,819
female: 78,460 (2009 est.)
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3.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
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Transnational Issues ::Tajikistan
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in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
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current situation: Tajikistan is a source country for women trafficked through Kyrgyzstan and Russia to the UAE, Turkey, and Russia for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; men are trafficked to Russia and Kazakhstan for the purpose of forced labor, primarily in the construction and agricultural industries; boys and girls are trafficked internally for various purposes, including forced labor and forced begging
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Tajikistan is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking, especially efforts to investigate, prosecute, convict, and sentence traffickers; despite evidence of low- and mid-level officials' complicity in trafficking, the government did not punish any public officials for trafficking complicity during 2007; lack of capacity and poor coordination between government institutions remained key obstacles to effective anti-trafficking efforts (2008)
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major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
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