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Europe :: Sweden
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Sweden
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Sweden
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of Sweden
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Introduction ::Sweden
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A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.
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Geography ::Sweden
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Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
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62 00 N, 15 00 E
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total: 450,295 sq km
country comparison to the world: 55
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km
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slightly larger than California
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total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
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3,218 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
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temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
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mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
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lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
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iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
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arable land: 5.93%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 94.06% (2005)
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1,150 sq km (2003)
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179 cu km (2005)
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total: 2.68 cu km/yr (37%/54%/9%)
per capita: 296 cu m/yr (2002)
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ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
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acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
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People ::Sweden
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9,059,651 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
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0-14 years: 15.7% (male 733,597/female 692,194)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 3,003,358/female 2,927,038)
65 years and over: 18.8% (male 753,293/female 950,171) (2009 est.)
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total: 41.5 years
male: 40.4 years
female: 42.6 years (2009 est.)
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0.158% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
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10.13 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
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10.21 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
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1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
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urban population: 85% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 2.75 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 222
male: 2.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 80.86 years
country comparison to the world: 10
male: 78.59 years
female: 83.26 years (2009 est.)
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1.67 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
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0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
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6,200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
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fewer than 100 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
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noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
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indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
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Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%
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Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
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total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2006)
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7.1% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 21
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Government ::Sweden
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conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
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constitutional monarchy
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name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
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6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
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Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)
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1 January 1975
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civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
election results: Center-right coalition of Moderate, Center, Liberal, and Christian Democrats parties win 175 out of 349 votes; Fredrik REINFELDT becomes prime minister
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unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 37.2%, Moderates 27.8%, Center Party 8.3%, Liberal People's Party 8.0%, Christian Democrats 6.9%, Left Party 6.3%, Greens 5.4%; seats by party - Social Democrats 130, Moderates 97, Center Party 29, Liberal People's Party 28, Christian Democrats 24, Left Party 22, Greens 19
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Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)
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Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Liberal People's Party [Jan BJORKLUND]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]
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Children's Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO; Swedish Federation of Trade Unions or LO
other: media
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ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURCAT, MONUC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
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chief of mission: Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert J. SILVERMAN
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
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blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
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Economy ::Sweden
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Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and growth continued downward in the fourth as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption. On 3 February 2009, the Swedish Government announced a $6 billon rescue package for the banking sector.
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$344.3 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$345.7 billion (2007 est.)
$336.6 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$484.6 billion (2008 est.)
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-0.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
2.7% (2007 est.)
4.5% (2006 est.)
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$38,100 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$38,300 (2007 est.)
$37,300 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 28%
services: 70.5% (2008 est.)
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4.897 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
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agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 28.2%
services: 70.7% (2008 est.)
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6.2% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
6.1% (2007 est.)
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NA%
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lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2000)
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23 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 134
25 (1992)
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19.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
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revenues: $259.9 billion
expenditures: $248.1 billion (2008 est.)
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36.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
51.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
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3.5% (November 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
2.2% (2007 est.)
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2% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 129
3.5% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 140
4% (2004)
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$185.4 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
$217.1 billion (31 December 2007)
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$54.55 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
$48.49 billion (31 December 2007)
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$549 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 19
$630.8 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 21
$612.5 billion (31 December 2007)
$573.3 billion (31 December 2006)
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barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
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iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
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-1.8% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
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144 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
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134.5 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
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14.71 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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12.75 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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3,572 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
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351,800 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
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219,300 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
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542,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
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913 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
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0 cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 110
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913 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
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$39.96 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$38.42 billion (2007 est.)
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$183.1 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$170.5 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
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Germany 10.4%, Norway 9.5%, Denmark 7.4%, UK 7.4%, US 6.6%, Finland 6.3%, Netherlands 5.1%, France 4.9%, Belgium 4.4% (2008)
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$165.3 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$152.2 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
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Germany 17.5%, Denmark 9.4%, Norway 8.6%, UK 6.2%, Finland 5.7%, Netherlands 5.6%, France 5%, Russia 4.4%, China 4.2% (2008)
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$29.72 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$31.04 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$617.6 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 17
$598.2 billion (30 June 2006)
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$290.4 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$252.3 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$343.9 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$306.4 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 6.4074 (2008 est.), 6.7629 (2007), 7.3731 (2006), 7.4731 (2005), 7.3489 (2004)
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Communications ::Sweden
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5.323 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 30
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10.988 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 57
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general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)
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AM 1, FM 124, shortwave 0 (2008)
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252 (2008)
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.se
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3.886 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 20
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8.1 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 32
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Transportation ::Sweden
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249 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 26
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total: 152
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 36 (2009)
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total: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 92 (2009)
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2 (2009)
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gas 786 km (2008)
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total: 11,633 km
country comparison to the world: 20
standard gauge: 11,528 km 1.435-m gauge (7,531 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)
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total: 425,300 km
country comparison to the world: 14
paved: 139,300 km (includes 1,740 km of expressways)
unpaved: 286,000 km (2008)
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2,052 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 43
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total: 195
country comparison to the world: 34
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 23, carrier 1, chemical tanker 45, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 37, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 25
foreign-owned: 41 (Denmark 4, Estonia 2, Finland 12, Germany 5, Italy 9, Norway 7, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 207 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 4, Barbados 7, Bermuda 20, Cook Islands 8, Cyprus 2, Denmark 6, Finland 2, France 9, Germany 1, Gibraltar 13, Isle of Man 1, Italy 1, Liberia 10, Malaysia 3, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 28, Netherlands Antilles 1, Norway 34, Panama 6, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapore 20, UK 17, US 5) (2008)
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Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Lulea, Malmo, Stenungsund, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
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Military ::Sweden
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Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2008)
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18-47 years of age for male compulsory or voluntary military service; conscript service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; women are eligible for voluntary military service (2009)
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males age 16-49: 2,052,890
females age 16-49: 1,980,550 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,705,746
females age 16-49: 1,645,070 (2009 est.)
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male: 62,262
female: 59,340 (2009 est.)
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1.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
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Transnational Issues ::Sweden
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none
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