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Africa :: Mozambique
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Mozambique
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Mozambique
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Map of Mozambique
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Introduction ::Mozambique
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Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid 1990's. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment. Mozambique has seen very strong economic growth since the end of the civil war largely due to post-conflict reconstruction.
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Geography ::Mozambique
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Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
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18 15 S, 35 00 E
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total: 799,380 sq km
country comparison to the world: 35
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
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slightly less than twice the size of California
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total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
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2,470 km
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territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
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tropical to subtropical
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mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
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lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
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coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
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arable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)
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1,180 sq km (2003)
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216 cu km (1992)
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total: 0.63 cu km/yr (11%/2%/87%)
per capita: 32 cu m/yr (2000)
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severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
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a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
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People ::Mozambique
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21,669,278
country comparison to the world: 52
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2009 est.)
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0-14 years: 44.3% (male 4,829,272/female 4,773,209)
15-64 years: 52.8% (male 5,605,227/female 5,842,679)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 257,119/female 361,772) (2009 est.)
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total: 17.4 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.8 years (2009 est.)
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1.791% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
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37.98 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
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20.07 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
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NA (2009 est.)
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urban population: 37% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 4.1% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 105.8 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 7
male: 108.57 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 103 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 41.18 years
country comparison to the world: 220
male: 41.83 years
female: 40.53 years (2009 est.)
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5.18 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
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12.5% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
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1.5 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
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81,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
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noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
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African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
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Catholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
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Emakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
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total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2005)
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5% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 75
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Government ::Mozambique
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conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
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republic
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name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
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10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
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25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
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Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
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30 November 1990
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based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held on 28 October 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
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unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held on 28 October 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
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Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president, and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, Constitutional Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
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Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
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Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
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ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Todd C. CHAPMAN
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 492797
FAX: [258] (21) 490114
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three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
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Economy ::Mozambique
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At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s, and although it returned to double digits in 2000-06, in 2007 inflation had slowed to 8%, while GDP growth reached 7.5%. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. At the end of 2007, and after years of negotiations, the government took over Portugal's majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level. In July 2007 the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a Compact with Mozambique; the Compact entered into force in September 2008 and will continue for five years. Compact projects will focus on improving sanitation, roads, agriculture, and the business regulation environment in an effort to spur economic growth in the four northern provinces of the country.
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$18.94 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$17.79 billion (2007 est.)
$16.62 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$9.654 billion (2008 est.)
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6.5% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
7% (2007 est.)
8.5% (2006 est.)
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$900 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
$900 (2007 est.)
$800 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 23.5%
industry: 30.9%
services: 45.6% (2008 est.)
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9.65 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
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agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
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21% (1997 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
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70% (2001 est.)
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lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 39.2% (2003)
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47.3 (2002)
country comparison to the world: 34
39.6 (1997)
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24.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
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revenues: NA
expenditures: NA
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21.4% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
22.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
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10.3% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
8.2% (2007 est.)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 43
9.95% (31 December 2007)
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NA% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 17
19.52% (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 112
$1.261 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 111
$1.467 billion (31 December 2007)
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$NA (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 135
$877.2 million (31 December 2007)
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$NA
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cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
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food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
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9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
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15.91 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
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10.16 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
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11.82 billion kWh (2007 est.)
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8.278 billion kWh (2007 est.)
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0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
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16,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
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0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
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13,760 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
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0 bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
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3.3 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
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100 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
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3.2 billion cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 30
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
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127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
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$-975 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$-785.3 million (2007 est.)
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$2.653 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$2.412 billion (2007 est.)
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aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
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South Africa 17.3%, Italy 14.9%, Spain 11.4%, Belgium 11.1%, UK 5.3%, China 4.9%, Zimbabwe 4.6% (2008)
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$3.458 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
$2.811 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
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South Africa 34.3%, Australia 8.4%, China 6.1%, US 5% (2008)
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$1.606 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$1.445 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$4.332 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$4.189 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 24.125 (2008 est.), 26.264 (2007), 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004)
note: in 2006 Mozambique revalued its currency, with 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais
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Communications ::Mozambique
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78,300 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 150
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4.405 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 92
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general assessment: fair system with an extremely low density of less than 1 fixed line per 100 persons
domestic: the telecommunications sector is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges; stagnation in the fixed-line network contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads, including those from Maputo to the South African and Swaziland borders, the national highway through Gaza and Inhambane provinces, the Beira corridor, and from Nampula to Nacala
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
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AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
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4 (2008)
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.mz
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21,388 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 103
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350,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
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Transportation ::Mozambique
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105 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 55
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total: 23
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 5 (2009)
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total: 82
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 39 (2009)
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gas 918 km; refined products 278 km (2008)
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total: 4,787 km
country comparison to the world: 37
narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
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total: 30,400 km
country comparison to the world: 96
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (2000)
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460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 85
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total: 2
country comparison to the world: 147
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2008)
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Beira, Maputo, Nacala
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Military ::Mozambique
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Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
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19-35 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation (2009)
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males age 16-49: 4,545,975 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 2,366,897
females age 16-49: 2,209,764 (2009 est.)
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male: 263,994
female: 265,058 (2009 est.)
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0.8% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 149
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Transnational Issues ::Mozambique
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none
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current situation: Mozambique is a source and, to a much lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; the use of forced and bonded child laborers is a common practice in Mozambique's rural areas; women and girls are trafficked from rural to urban areas of Mozambique, as well as to South Africa, for domestic servitude and commercial sexual exploitation; young men and boys are trafficked to South Africa for farm work and mining
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - for the second consecutive year, Mozambique is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat human trafficking in 2007; while the government conducted investigations into cases of human trafficking, there were no prosecutions or convictions of traffickers; government efforts to protect victims of trafficking continued to suffer from limited resources and a lack of political commitment (2008)
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southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
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