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Europe :: Slovakia
page last updated on October 28, 2009
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Introduction ::Slovakia
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The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I allowed the Slovaks to join the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro area on 1 January 2009.
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Geography ::Slovakia
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Central Europe, south of Poland
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48 40 N, 19 30 E
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total: 49,035 sq km
country comparison to the world: 130
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km
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about twice the size of New Hampshire
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total: 1,474 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
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rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
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lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
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brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
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arable land: 29.23%
permanent crops: 2.67%
other: 68.1% (2005)
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1,830 sq km (2003)
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50.1 cu km (2003)
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total: 1.04
per capita: 193 cu m/yr (2003)
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NA
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air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
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People ::Slovakia
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5,463,046 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
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0-14 years: 15.8% (male 442,168/female 422,055)
15-64 years: 71.7% (male 1,952,527/female 1,965,646)
65 years and over: 12.5% (male 254,510/female 426,140) (2009 est.)
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total: 36.9 years
male: 35.2 years
female: 38.6 years (2009 est.)
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0.137% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
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10.6 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
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9.53 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
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0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
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urban population: 56% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 6.84 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 171
male: 7.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 75.4 years
country comparison to the world: 78
male: 71.47 years
female: 79.53 years (2009 est.)
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1.35 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
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less than 0.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
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fewer than 200 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
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fewer than 100 (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
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noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
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Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
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Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)
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Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2004)
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total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2006)
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3.9% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 111
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Government ::Slovakia
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conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska Republika
local short form: Slovensko
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parliamentary democracy
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name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
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1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
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Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
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ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998; amended February 2001
note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
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civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 July 2006); Deputy Prime Ministers Dusan CAPLOVIC, Robert KALINAK, Stefan HARABIN, Jan MIKOLAJ (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 55.5%, Iveta RADICOVA 44.5%
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unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 June 2006 (next to be held in 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Smer 29.1%, SDKU 18.4%, SMK 11.7%, SNS 11.7%, LS-HZDS 8.8%, KDH 8.3%, other 12%; seats by party - Smer 50, SDKU-DS 31, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 16, KDH 14; note - seats by party as of December 2008 - Smer 50, SDKU-DS 28, SMK 20, SNS 19, LS-HZDS 15, KDH 9, nonaffiliated 9
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Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council); Special Court (judges elected by a council of judges and appointed by president)
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parties in the Parliament:: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Pal CSAKY]; People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Jan SLOTA]
selected parties outside the Parliament:: Agrarian Party of the Provinces or ASV [Vladimir GOZORA]; Alliance of the New Citizen or ANO [Pavol RUSKO]; Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Peter ZAJAC]; Free Forum [Zuzana MARTINAKOVA]; Mission 21 - New Christian Democracy or MISIA 21 [Ivan SIMKO]; Movement for Democracy or HZD [Jozef GRAPA]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Ladislav KOZMON]; Prosperita Slovenska or PS [Frantisek A. ZVRSKOVEC]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [Jozef HRDLICKA]; Slovak People's Party or SLS [Jozef SASIK]; Union of the Workers of Slovakia or ZRS [Jan LUPTAK]
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Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic; National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK; The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
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Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
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chief of mission: Ambassador Peter BURIAN
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Keith EDDINS
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
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three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the coat of arms of Slovakia (consisting of a red shield bordered in white and bearing a white Cross of Lorraine surmounting three blue hills); the coat of arms is centered vertically and offset slightly to the hoist side
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Economy ::Slovakia
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Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation, healthcare, pension, and social welfare systems helped Slovakia to consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies such as labor market liberalization and a 19% flat tax. Foreign investment in the automotive and electronic sectors has been strong. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 18% in 2003-04, dropped to 8.4% in 2008 but remains the economy's Achilles heel. Despite its 2006 pre-election promises to loosen fiscal policy and reverse the previous DZURINDA government's pro-market reforms, FICO's cabinet has thus far been careful to keep a lid on spending in order to meet euro adoption criteria and has focused on regulating energy and food prices instead. The OECD expects Slovakia's GDP growth to be positive in 2009.
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$119.5 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$112.3 billion (2007 est.)
$101.7 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$95.4 billion (2008 est.)
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6.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
10.4% (2007 est.)
8.5% (2006 est.)
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$21,900 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$20,600 (2007 est.)
$18,700 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 3.7%
industry: 37.2%
services: 59% (2008 est.)
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2.254 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
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agriculture 4%, industry 39%, services 56.9% (30 September 2008)
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7.7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 104
8.4% (2007 est.)
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21% (2002)
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lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 20.9% (1996)
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26 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 128
26.3 (1996)
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25.9% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
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revenues: $31.23 billion
expenditures: $33.32 billion (2008 est.)
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28.7% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
46.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
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4.6% (2008))
country comparison to the world: 78
2.8% (2007 est.)
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3% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 115
4.25% (31 December 2007)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks from the euro area; as of 1 January 2009 Slovakia became a member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
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6.42% (31 December 2008)
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$25.52 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 38
$26.17 billion (31 December 2007)
note: this figure represents the US dollar value of Slovak koruny in circulation prior to Slovakia joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 16 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money and quasi money circulating within their own borders
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$27.71 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 49
$21.11 billion (31 December 2007)
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$50.94 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 61
$41.76 billion (31 December 2007)
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$5.079 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 77
$6.971 billion (31 December 2007)
$5.574 billion (31 December 2006)
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grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
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metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
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-3.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
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26.53 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
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26.81 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
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8.891 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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9.412 billion kWh (2008 est.)
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14,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
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84,990 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
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74,070 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
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148,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
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9 million bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
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102 million cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
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6.308 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
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186 million cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 41
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6.266 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
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14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
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$-6.43 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
$-4.482 billion (2007 est.)
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$72.57 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$64.5 billion (2007 est.)
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vehicles 25.9%, machinery and electrical equipment 21.3%, base metals 14.6%, chemicals and minerals 10.1%, plastics 5.4% (2004)
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Germany 20%, Czech Republic 13.1%, France 6.7%, Poland 6.6%, Hungary 6.3%, Austria 5.9%, Italy 5.8%, UK 4.7% (2008)
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$73.62 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
$65.47 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and transport equipment 41.1%, intermediate manufactured goods 19.3%, fuels 12.3%, chemicals 9.8%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 10.2% (2003)
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Germany 20%, Czech Republic 17.7%, Russia 10.6%, Hungary 6.9%, South Korea 5.2%, Austria 5%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.1% (2008)
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$18.78 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$18.96 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$52.53 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 52
$44.31 billion (31 December 2007)
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$44.12 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$40.7 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$1.867 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$1.609 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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Slovak koruny (SKK) per US dollar - 21.05 (2008 est.), 24.919 (2007), 29.611 (2006), 31.018 (2005), 32.257 (2004)
note: on 1 January 2009 Slovakia adopted the euro as legal tender
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Communications ::Slovakia
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1.098 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 75
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5.52 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 82
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general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services
domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
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AM 1, FM 22, shortwave 1 (2008)
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37 (2008)
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.sk
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867,615 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 41
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3.566 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
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Transportation ::Slovakia
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35 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 110
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total: 20
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2009)
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total: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 7 (2009)
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1 (2009)
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gas 6,769 km; oil 416 km (2008)
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total: 3,622 km
country comparison to the world: 48
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 3,473 km 1.435-m gauge (1,577 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km (1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge) (2008)
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total: 43,761 km
country comparison to the world: 83
paved: 38,085 km (includes 316 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,676 km (2006)
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172 km (on Danube River) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 100
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total: 51
country comparison to the world: 70
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 42, refrigerated cargo 4
foreign-owned: 47 (Bulgaria 6, Germany 3, Greece 2, Ireland 1, Israel 4, Italy 2, Poland 2, Russia 1, Slovenia 1, Syria 2, Turkey 10, Ukraine 12, UK 1) (2008)
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Bratislava, Komarno
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Military ::Slovakia
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Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2009)
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17-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2007)
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males age 16-49: 1,420,966
females age 16-49: 1,386,259 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 1,165,470
females age 16-49: 1,152,941 (2009 est.)
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male: 36,552
female: 34,783 (2009 est.)
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1.87% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
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Transnational Issues ::Slovakia
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bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
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transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy
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