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Europe :: Kosovo
page last updated on October 27, 2009
Flag of Kosovo
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Kosovo
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Map of Kosovo
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Introduction ::Kosovo
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Ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century but did not fully incorporate them into the Serbian realm until the early 13th century. The defeat of the Serbian empire at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia with status almost equivalent to that of a republic under the 1974 Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. At the same time, Serb nationalist leaders, such as Slobodan MILOSEVIC, exploited Kosovo Serb claims of maltreatment to secure votes from supporters, many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland. Under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia instituted a new constitution in 1989 that revoked Kosovo's status as an autonomous province of Serbia. Kosovo Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum that declared Kosovo independent. Under MILOSEVIC, Serbia carried out repressive measures against the Albanians in the early 1990s as the unofficial Kosovo government, led by Ibrahim RUGOVA, used passive resistance in an attempt to try to gain international assistance and recognition of an independent Kosovo. Albanians dissatisfied with RUGOVA's passive strategy in the 1990s created the Kosovo Liberation Army and launched an insurgency. Starting in 1998, Serbian military, police, and paramilitary forces conducted a counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians. International attempts to mediate the conflict failed, and MILOSEVIC's rejection of a proposed settlement led to a three-month NATO bombing campaign against Serbia beginning in March 1999 that forced Serbia to agree to withdraw its military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The negotiations ran in stages between 2006 and 2007, but ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over fifty countries have recognized Kosovo. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence and subsequently has sought an advisory opinion with the backing of the General Assembly from the International Court of Justice on the legality under international law of Kosovo's independence declaration.
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Geography ::Kosovo
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Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia
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42 35 N, 21 00 E
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total: 10,887 sq km
country comparison to the world: 168
land: 10,887 sq km
water: 0 sq km
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slightly larger than Delaware
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total: 702 km
border countries: Albania 112 km, Macedonia 159 km, Montenegro 79 km, Serbia 352 km
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0 km (landlocked)
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none (landlocked)
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influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
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flat fluvial basin with an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
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lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim 297 m (located on the border with Albania)
highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m
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nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite
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People ::Kosovo
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1,804,838 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
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0-14 years: 27.7% (male 260,678/female 239,779)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 617,890/female 567,939)
65 years and over: 6.6% (male 50,463/female 68,089) (2009 est.)
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total: 25.9 years
male: 25.4 years
female: 26.4 years (2009 est.)
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at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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noun: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovac (Serbian)
adjective: Kosovar (Albanian), Kosovski (Serbian)
note: Kosovan, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective
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Albanians 88%, Serbs 7%, other 5% (Bosniak, Gorani, Roma, Turk, Ashkali, Egyptian)
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Muslim, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholic
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Albanian (official), Serbian (official), Bosnian, Turkish, Roma
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.9%
male: 96.6%
female: 87.5% (2007 Census)
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Government ::Kosovo
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conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo
conventional short form: Kosovo
local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosovo)
local short form: Kosova (Kosovo)
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republic
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name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)
geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
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30 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna in Albanian; opstine, singular - opstina in Serbian); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc/Drenas (Glogovac), Istog (Istok), Kacanik, Kamenice/Dardana (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mitrovice (Mitrovica), Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan
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17 February 2008 (from Serbia)
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Independence Day, 17 February (2008)
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adopted by the Kosovo Assembly on 9 April 2008; effective 15 June 2008
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evolving legal system based on terms of UN Special Envoy Martti AHTISAARI's Plan for Kosovo's supervised independence
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18 years of age; universal
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chief of state: President Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 February 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Hashim THACI (since 9 January 2008)
cabinet: ministers; elected by the Kosovo Assembly
elections: the president is elected for a five-year term by the Kosovo Assembly; election last held 9 January 2008 (next to be held by in 2013); the prime minister is elected by the Kosovo Assembly
election results: Fatmir SEJDIU reelected president after three rounds; Hashim THACI elected prime minister by the Assembly
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unicameral national Assembly (120 seats; 100 seats directly elected, 10 seats guaranteed for ethnic Serbs, 10 seats guaranteed for other ethnic minorities; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 November 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDK 34.3%, LDK 22.6%, AKR 12.3%, LDD 10.0%, AAK 9.6%, other 11.2%; seats by party - PDK 37, LDK 25, AKR 13, LDD 11, AAK 10, other 4
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Supreme Court; district courts; municipal courts
note: the Kosovo Constitution dictates that the Supreme Court of Kosovo is the highest judicial authority, and provides for a Kosovo Judicial Council (KJC) that proposes to the president candidates for appointment or reappointment as judges and prosecutors; the KJC is also responsible for decisions on the promotion and transfer of judges and disciplinary proceedings against judges; at least 15 percent of Supreme Court and district court judges shall be from non-majority communities
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Albanian Christian Democratic Party of Kosovo or PShDK [Tome MARKU]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Alliance for a New Kosovo or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]; Alliance of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo and Metohija or SDSKIM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Autonomous Liberal Party of SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]; Bosniak Vakat Coalition [Dzezair MURATI]; Citizens' Initiative of Gora or GIG [Murselj HALJILJI]; Council of Independent Social Democrats of Kosovo or SNSDKIM [Ljubisa ZIVIC]; Democratic Action Party or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Democratic Ashkali Party of Kosovo or PDAK; Democratic League of Dardania or LDD [Nexhat DACI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Ashkali of Kosovo or PDAK [Sabit RAHMANI]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Democratic Party Vatan [Sadik IDRIZI]; Democratic Union of Ashkalis or BDA [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Justice Party or PD [Sylejman QERKEZI]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Liberal Party of Kosovo or PLK [Gjergi DEDAJ]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Xhevdet NEZIRAJ]; New Democratic Party or ND [Branislav GRBIC]; New Kosovo Alliance or AKR [Behxhet PACOLLI]; Popular Movement of Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Reform Party Ora [Teuta SAHATCIA]; Serb National Party or SNS [Mihailo SCEPANOVIC]; Serbian Kosovo and Metohija Party or SKMS [Dragisa MIRIC]; Serbian List for Kosovo and Metohija [Oliver IVANOVIC]; Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSDK [Agim CEKU]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]
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Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights); Humanitarian Law Centre (human rights); Movement for Self-Determination; Serb National Council (SNV)
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ITUC, WFTU
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Avni SPAHIU
chancery: 900 19th Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 2006
telephone: 202-436-3581
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chief of mission: Ambassador Tina KAIDANOW
embassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Nazim Hikmet 30, Pristina, Kosovo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [381] 38 59 59 3000
FAX: [381] 38 549 890
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centered on a dark blue field is the geographical shape of Kosovo in a gold color surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars - each representing one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo - arrayed in a slight arc
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Economy ::Kosovo
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Over the past few years Kosovo's economy has shown significant progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany and Switzerland - are estimated to account for about 15% of GDP, and donor-financed activities and aid for another 15%. Kosovo's citizens are the poorest in Europe with an average annual per capita income of only $2,300. Unemployment, around 40% of the population, is a significant problem that encourages outward migration and black market activity. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and lack of technical expertise. With international assistance, Kosovo has been able to privatize 50% of its state-owned enterprises (SOEs) by number, and over 90% of SOEs by value. Minerals and metals - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once formed the backbone of industry, but output has declined because of ageing equipment and insufficient investment. A limited and unreliable electricity supply due to technical and financial problems is a major impediment to economic development. Kosovo's Ministry of Energy and Mining has solicited expressions of interest from private investors to develop a new power plant in order to address Kosovo and the region's unmet and growing demands for power. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro, but the Serbian dinar is also used in Serb enclaves. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low. Kosovo has one of the most open economies in the region, and continues to work with the international community on measures to improve the business environment and attract foreign investment.
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$5 billion (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
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$3.237 billion (2007 est.)
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5.1% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
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$2,300 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
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agriculture: 20%
industry: 20%
services: 60% (2007 est.)
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550,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
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agriculture: 16.5%
industry: NA
services: NA (2007 est.)
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40% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
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37% (2007 est.)
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30 (FY05/06)
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30% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
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revenues: $1.19 billion
expenditures: $1.22 billion (2007 est.)
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NA
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5.3% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
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13.79% (31 December 2008)
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wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers
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mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances
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832 million kWh (2006)
country comparison to the world: 151
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4.281 billion kWh (2006)
country comparison to the world: 114
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0 bbl/day (2007)
country comparison to the world: 148
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NA bbl/day
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NA bbl
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0 cu m (2007)
country comparison to the world: 171
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0 cu m (2007)
country comparison to the world: 167
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NA cu m
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$-964 million
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$527 million
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mining and processed metal products, scrap metals, leather products, machinery, appliances
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$2.6 billion f.o.b.
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foodstuffs, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery and electrical equipment
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$NA
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$NA
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euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.6827 (2008), 0.7345 (2007)
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Communications ::Kosovo
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106,300 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 143
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562,000 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 154
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Transportation ::Kosovo
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8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 165
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total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2009)
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total: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2009)
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2 (2009)
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total: 430 km
country comparison to the world: 117
standard gauge: 430 km 1.435-m gauge (2007)
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total: 1,924 km
country comparison to the world: 175
paved: 1,666 km
unpaved: 258 km (2006)
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Military ::Kosovo
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males age 16-49: 428,685
females age 16-49: 388,848 (2009 est.)
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Transnational Issues ::Kosovo
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Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008
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IDP's: 21,000 (2007)
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