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East & Southeast Asia :: Indonesia
page last updated on October 28, 2009
Flag of Indonesia
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Location of Indonesia
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Introduction ::Indonesia
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The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japan's surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. Indonesia's first free parliamentary election after decades of repressive rule took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third-largest democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and home to the world's largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for past human rights violations, addressing climate change, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist movement in Papua.
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Geography ::Indonesia
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Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
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5 00 S, 120 00 E
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total: 1,904,569 sq km
country comparison to the world: 16
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
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slightly less than three times the size of Texas
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total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
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54,716 km
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measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
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tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
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mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
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lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
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petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
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arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)
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45,000 sq km (2003)
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2,838 cu km (1999)
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total: 82.78 cu km/yr (8%/1%/91%)
per capita: 372 cu m/yr (2000)
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occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
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deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
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People ::Indonesia
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240,271,522 (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
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0-14 years: 28.1% (male 34,337,341/female 33,162,207)
15-64 years: 66% (male 79,549,569/female 78,918,321)
65 years and over: 6% (male 6,335,208/female 7,968,876) (2009 est.)
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total: 27.6 years
male: 27.1 years
female: 28.1 years (2009 est.)
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1.136% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
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18.84 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
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6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
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-1.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
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urban population: 52% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2009 est.)
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total: 29.97 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 74
male: 34.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)
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total population: 70.76 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 68.26 years
female: 73.38 years (2009 est.)
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2.31 children born/woman (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
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0.2% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
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270,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
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8,700 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
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degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, and malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
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noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
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Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)
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Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
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Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)
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total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2005)
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3.6% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 127
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Government ::Indonesia
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conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
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republic
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name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones
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30 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Papua Barat, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 465 regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
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17 August 1945 (declared); 27 December 1949 (by the Netherlands)
note: in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945
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Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
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August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002
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based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
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17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
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chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President BOEDIONO (since 20 October 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president are elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president; percent of vote - Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO 60.8%, MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri 26.8%, Jusuf KALLA 12.4%
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People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) is the upper house, consists of members of DPR and DPD, has role in inaugurating and impeaching the president and in amending the constitution, does not formulate national policy; House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats, members elected to serve five-year terms), formulates and passes legislation at the national level; House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions
elections: last held 9 April 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - PD 20.9%, GOLKAR 14.5%, PDI-P 14.0%, PKS 7.9%, PAN 6.0%, PPP 5.3%, PKB 4.9%, GERINDRA 4.5%, HANURA 3.8%, others 18.2%; seats by party - PD 148, GOLKAR 108, PDI-P 93, PKS 59, PAN 42, PPP 39, PKB 26, GERINDRA 30, HANURA 15
note: 29 other parties received less than 2.5% of the vote so did not obtain any seats; because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties
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Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung is the final court of appeal but does not have the power of judicial review (justices are appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (invested by the president on 16 August 2003) has the power of judicial review, jurisdiction over the results of a general election, and reviews actions to dismiss a president from office; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006; the Anti-Corruption Court has jurisdiction over corruption cases brought by the independent Corruption Eradication Commission; in 2006, the Constitutional Court declared the mechanism by which the Anti-Corruption Court was established unconstitutional and gave the parliament until the end of 2009 to pass Anti-Corruption Court legislation
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Democrat Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Aburizal BAKRIE]; Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [WIRANTO]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; People's Conscience Party or HANURA [SUHARDI]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]
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Indonesian Women's Coalition (Koalisi Perempuan - human rights group); Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; National Alliance for Freedom of Religion and Faith; Oil Palm Watch (environmental)
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ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
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chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
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chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
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two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
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Economy ::Indonesia
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Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has made significant economic advances under the administration of President YUDHOYONO but faces challenges stemming from the global financial crisis and world economic downturn. Indonesia's debt-to-GDP ratio in recent years has declined steadily because of increasingly robust GDP growth and sound fiscal stewardship. The government has introduced significant reforms in the financial sector, including in the areas of tax and customs, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market supervision. Indonesia's investment law, passed in March 2007, seeks to address some of the concerns of foreign and domestic investors. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The non-bank financial sector, including pension funds and insurance, remains weak. Despite efforts to broaden and deepen capital markets, they remain underdeveloped. Economic difficulties in early 2008 centered on high global food and oil prices and their impact on Indonesia's poor and on the budget. The onset of the global financial crisis dampened inflationary pressures, but increased risk aversion for emerging market assets resulted in large losses in the stock market, significant depreciation of the rupiah, and a difficult environment for bond issuance. As global demand has slowed and prices for Indonesia's commodity exports have fallen, Indonesia faces the prospect of growth significantly below the 6-plus percent recorded in 2007 and 2008.
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$914.6 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$862 billion (2007 est.)
$810.9 billion (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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$511.8 billion (2008 est.)
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6.1% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
6.3% (2007 est.)
5.5% (2006 est.)
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$3,900 (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$3,700 (2007 est.)
$3,500 (2006 est.)
note: data are in 2008 US dollars
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agriculture: 14.4%
industry: 48.1%
services: 37.5% (2008 est.)
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112 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
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agriculture: 42.1%
industry: 18.6%
services: 39.3% (2006 est.)
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8.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
9.1% (2007 est.)
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17.8% (2006)
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lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32.3% (2006)
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39.4 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 66
37 (2001)
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23.6% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 61
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revenues: $92.62 billion
expenditures: $98.88 billion (2008 est.)
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28.6% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
56.2% of GDP (2004 est.)
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9.9% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
6.3% (2007 est.)
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10.83% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 52
8% (31 December 2007)
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6.41% (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
7.21% (31 December 2007)
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$41.71 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 28
$47.78 billion (31 December 2007)
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$131.1 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 21
$127 billion (31 December 2007)
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$166.2 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
$170.2 billion (31 December 2007)
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$98.76 billion (31 December 2008)
country comparison to the world: 37
$211.7 billion (31 December 2007)
$138.9 billion (31 December 2006)
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rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
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petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism
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3.7% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
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134.4 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
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119.3 billion kWh (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
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1.051 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
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1.564 million bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
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85,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
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671,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
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3.99 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
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70 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
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36.5 billion cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
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33.5 billion cu m (2008)
country comparison to the world: 8
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0 cu m (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
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3.001 trillion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
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$604 million (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
$10.49 billion (2007 est.)
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$139.3 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
$118 billion (2007 est.)
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oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
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Japan 20.2%, US 9.5%, Singapore 9.4%, China 8.5%, South Korea 6.7%, India 5.2%, Malaysia 4.7% (2008)
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$116 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$85.26 billion (2007 est.)
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machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
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Singapore 16.9%, China 11.8%, Japan 11.7%, Malaysia 6.9%, US 6.1%, South Korea 5.4%, Thailand 4.9% (2008)
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$51.64 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$56.92 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$155.1 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$141.2 billion (31 December 2007)
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$67.3 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$58.96 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
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$6.656 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$9.225 billion (2006 est.)
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Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar - 9,698.9 (2008), 9,143 (2007), 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004)
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Communications ::Indonesia
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30.378 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
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140.578 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 6
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general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
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AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
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54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with its group of local transmitters) (2006)
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.id
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865,309 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
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30 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 11
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Transportation ::Indonesia
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683 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10
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total: 164
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 18
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 56
under 914 m: 35 (2009)
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total: 519
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 489 (2009)
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36 (2009)
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condensate 735 km; condensate/gas 73 km; gas 5,797 km; oil 5,721 km; oil/gas/water 12 km; refined products 1,370 km; water 44 km (2008)
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total: 8,529 km
country comparison to the world: 25
narrow gauge: 8,529 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2008)
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total: 391,009 km
country comparison to the world: 17
paved: 216,714 km
unpaved: 174,295 km (2005)
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21,579 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 5
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total: 971
country comparison to the world: 11
by type: bulk carrier 54, cargo 514, chemical tanker 35, container 80, liquefied gas 7, passenger 44, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 143, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 10, specialized tanker 10, vehicle carrier 4
foreign-owned: 43 (China 2, France 1, Germany 1, Japan 6, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 27, Taiwan 2, UAE 2)
registered in other countries: 114 (Bahamas 2, Cambodia 2, China 1, Hong Kong 7, Liberia 2, Mongolia 1, Panama 31, Singapore 66, unknown 2) (2008)
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Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
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the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
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Military ::Indonesia
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Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL); includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Kommando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)) (2009)
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18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2008)
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males age 16-49: 63,800,825
females age 16-49: 61,729,717 (2008 est.)
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males age 16-49: 52,997,922
females age 16-49: 52,503,046 (2009 est.)
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male: 2,197,323
female: 2,126,412 (2009 est.)
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3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
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Transnational Issues ::Indonesia
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Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; Timor-Leste-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many refugees from Timor-Leste who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJ's award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches
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IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku) (2007)
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illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy
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The online Factbook is updated bi-weekly. ISSN 1553-8133
For additional information on government leaders in selected foreign countries, go to World Leaders.