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The Granat Satellite

artist concept of Granat

GRANAT was a Russian dedicated X-ray/gamma ray astronomy mission in collaboration with other European countries. Launched on 1 December 1989, Granat operated for almost 9 years. After an initial period of pointed observations, Granat went into survey mode in September 1994.

Mission Characteristics

* Lifetime: December 1, 1989 - November 27, 1998
* Energy Range: 2 keV - 100 MeV
* Payload:
  • Coded-mask X-ray telescope (SIGMA)
    0.03-1.3 MeV, eff. area 800 cm2, FOV 5°x5°
  • Coded-mask X-ray telescope (ART-P)
    4-60 keV, eff. area 1250 cm2, FOV 1.8°x1.8°
  • X-ray proportional counter spectrometer (ART-S)
    3-100 keV, eff. area 2400 cm2 at 10 keV, FOV 2°x2°
  • All-sky monitor (WATCH)
    6-120 keV, eff. area 45 cm2, FOV All-sky
  • Gamma-ray burst experiment (PHEBUS)
    0.1-100 MeV, 6 units of 100 cm2 each, FOV All-sky
  • Gamma-ray burst experiment (KONUS-B)
    0.02-8 MeV, 7 units of 315 cm2 each, FOV All-sky
  • Gamma-ray burst experiment (TOURNESOL)
    0.002-20 MeV), FOV 5°x5°
* Science Highlights:
  • A very deep (more than 5 million sec.) imaging of the galactic center region.
  • Discovery of electron-positron annihilation lines from the Galactic "micro-quasar" 1E1740-294 and the X-ray Nova Muscae.
  • Study of spectra and time variability of black hole candidates.
* Archive: PHEBUS Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

[About Granat] ( [Archive] ( [Gallery] ( [Publications] (

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